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1–2 Samuel: The Story of Saul and the Reign of David

OT Foundations 10–11, 01-2016
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Andrew Brown

on 11 May 2016

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Transcript of 1–2 Samuel: The Story of Saul and the Reign of David

OT302/502
01-2016
OT Foundations weeks 10–11
1–2 Samuel: The Story of Saul
& the Reign of David

Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
1-2 Samuel
1-2 Kings
History and Society behind the Text
Formation and Transmission of the Text
Structure and Literary Features of the Text
Canonical Order
Major Themes
Theology
Reception/ History of Interpretation
Core Theme
Main Storyline
Personal and Pastoral Application
[Interpretive Methods and Assumptions]
"My father was a
wandering Aramean,
and he went down into Egypt
with a few people and lived there
and became a great nation,...but the Egyptians mistreated us.... Then we cried out to the LORD....
So the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm...
"He brought us to this place and gave us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey" (Deut. 26:5–9)
Covenant
of Noah
Abrahamic Covenant
Davidic Covenant
benefits
obligations
Leave the old life for a new land.
Nationhood, reputation, favour and protection and worldwide impact
narrative
LITERARY FEATURES
treaty
torah (law)
historical movement >>>
historical movement >>>
historical slow motion at Sinai
historical slow motion on the Jordan plain
treaty
torah (law)
Israel's monarchic history
C. 1000-586 B.C. (Iron Age II) going by twin annals of royal lines of Israel (northern kingdom) and Judah (southern kingdom)
1 Samuel-2 Kings/1-2 Chronicles
Israel's pre-monarchic stories
c. 1400-1000 B.C. by narrative's internal implied chronology (1 Kings 6:1) linked via monarchy chronology into attested ANE history, or about 1250-1000 on the alternate chronology
Joshua-1 Samuel
Israel's pre-settlement origins
Exodus-Deuteronomy
Israel's original ancestors
Set in the early 2nd millennium BCE, judging by narrative's chronological hints (esp. Exod. 12:40 in Hebrew text) and genealogical information
Genesis 12-50
Humanity's primordial origins
Concerns the 4th-3rd millennia BCE, based on the impression created by the genealogies of Genesis 5, 11 & other cultural references in Genesis 1–11
Genesis 1-11
Covers 1450-1400 B.C. by the narrative's internal implied chronology (esp. 1 Kings 6:1) linked via the chronology of Israel's subsequent kings into attested ANE history
An Alternate Chronology
We are encouraged by factors such as...
The evidence for symbolic use of numbers such as 40 and 480 in the Bible,
The Egyptian dominance of Canaan until the end of the C13th BC, and
The notable reign of Rameses II 1279–1213 BC,
...to think in terms of a late thirteenth-century exodus.
4000
3000
2000
1200
dates BC
1500
eras
Chalcolithic
Early Bronze
Middle Bronze (2000–1550)
Late Bronze (1550–1200)
Iron I (1200–900)
Iron II (900–586)
PATRIARCHS
EGYPT
little historical movement in Pentateuchal narrative
little historical movement in Pentateuchal narrative
DESERT PERIOD
CONQUEST
JUDGES
SAUL
DAVID
SOLOMON
TWIN KINGDOMS (926)
FALL OF SAMARIA (722)
FALL OF JERUSALEM (586)
HISTORICAL ISSUES
Beginnings (1–11)
Promises to the Patriarchs (12–50)
2:4
5:1
11:10, 27
'Generations' of heaven and earth
'Generations' of Adam
'Generations' of Noah
'Generations' of Noah's sons
'Generations' of Shem
'Generations' of Terah
Prologue
= significant appearance of
'toledoth'
(~'descendants of X and their story')
25:12-13, 19
36:1, 9
37:1
Joseph and the Loss of the Land
Jacob and the Faithfulness of God
Abraham and the Quest for an Heir to the Promises
'Generations' of Ishmael
'Generations' of Isaac
'Generations' of Esau
'Generations' of Jacob
10:1, 32
Themes of the Pentateuch: The Covenants
1–2 Samuel
: The Takeaway
6:9
EMPIRES AND CULTURES AROUND ISRAEL
Pre-dynastic
Old Kingdom
Early dynastic
First
Intermediate
Period
Middle Kingdom (2055-1650)
Second
Intermediate
Period
Hyksos rulers
Third Intermediate Period (1069-664)
Late Period
EGYPT
capitals
Memphis (Lower E.)
Thebes (upper Egypt)
Avaris (E delta)
Thebes
Pirameses
Tanis (Zoan)
MESOPOTAMIA
Old Babylonian (2000–1595)
Ur III
(2100–2000)
Akkadian
Sumerian
chaos
North: Hurrians (main kingdom: Mitanni)
South: Kassites, based in Babylon (~400 year dynasty, ending in 1157 BC)
New Kingdom (1550-1069)
South: Kassites (ending 1157) and Elamites
New Kingdom (1550-1069)
1300
North: Assyrians, varying in strength
North: Hittites, Middle Assyrian, incursions by Egyptians
Eden
Genesis 2–3
Genesis 4–11
East of Eden
Canaan
Genesis 12–27
Genesis 28–31
Harran in Aram
Canaan
Genesis 32–45
Genesis 46
Egypt
–Exodus 12
Presence of God
Proximity to God
Absence of God
Alienation from God
The restoration of the presence of God to people, and of people to the presence of God.
Guiding Theme
EGYPT
MESOPOTAMIA
Plagues
7:7
12:1
Preparation
Pilgrimage
15:22
Covenant (19-24)
19
Camped at Sinai
The Ten Commandments
The Book of the Covenant
Consecration of the Covenant
Tabernacle (25–40)
Exodus (1–18)
Passover
& Exodus
Sinai Covenant
treaty
26
20
20:18
Specifications for Sacrifices (1–7)
Purification and Atonement (11–16)
Qualifications of a Holy Nation (17–27)
burning bush (3-4)
plagues (6-11)
pillar of cloud (13+)
signs on Sinai (19)
cloud filling tabernacle (40)
Presence of God revealed in Exodus
encounter with Moses (34)
Presence of God in Leviticus
Instruction from
Tent of Meeting (1:1)
For a good offering (9:23-24)
For a bad offering! (10:1-3)
Over the cover of the Ark of the Covenant (16:1-2, 13)
Promised as a privilege of the Covenant (26:12)
Ordination of Priests (8–10)
The Day of Atonement
narrative
20
22
Desert Experiences
and Additional Laws
Kadesh to the Plains of Moab
Camped beside the Jordan... and Additional Laws
Census #1
the Sinai generation
1
26
Census #2
the conquest generation
could have been the conquest generation
Narrative: travel incidents
Narrative: travel incidents
Jewish exiles with the chance to rebuild in Yehud (Judah), c. 500 BC.
Israelites on the cusp of the Promised Land, c. 1250 BC.
historical content retained in the cultural memory of Israel
needs of the present audience shape the presentation of the past
a scroll discovered in the Jerusalem temple in Josiah's time (c. 622 BC) that evoked a reaction suggestive of the message of Deuteronomy
KINGDOM
EXILE
The Feedback Effect in Biblical History
How the audience's situation affects historical accounts
Parts of Deuteronomy seem to
show a very clear consciousness of the final outcome of Israel's time in the Promised Land. Prophetic anticipation is one explanation, though Moses is not said to be 'prophesying' in these texts. Could the final outcome have affected the way the book was composed in its final form?
See 28:36-68; 30:1-10 ("When all these things have happened to you" 30:1 NRSV)
Focus for Understanding 1–2 Samuel
Historical Prologue
Keeping the Law
Knowing the Law
Formalizing the Covenant
5
12
27
FORMATION ISSUES
loses control of Canaan in the course of the twelfth century
The claimed 'collapse' of Bronze Age civilization in the region and the weakness of great powers such as Egypt and Assyria permitted the proliferation of newer nations such as the Arameans, the Philistines, the E. Jordan nations, and the Israelites.
On the rise:
Israel
Phoenicia (Tyre, Sidon)
Philistines (Sea Peoples)
Arameans
Edom, Moab, Ammon
Relatively weak:
Egypt
Assyria
Not yet important in relation to Israel:
Babylon
Persia
Greece
Rome
Snapshot of the Region 1200–1000 BC
Breaching the Defences
Occupying the Land
Dividing the Land
Renewing the Covenant
23
13
7
Settings in Joshua
Israel's conquest HQs
Shittim
< Num. 25:1
Jordan crossing
Gilgal
Ebal & Gerizim (outside Shechem)
Shiloh
Shechem
'Tent of Meeting'
22:19, 29
'Tabernacle'
Gilgal
Covenant Presence
Covenant Promises
Covenant Commitments
9
22
21
24
1
8
1:7-8
8:31-34
22:5
23:6
24:26
'priest' & 'Levite'
'priests'
Law of Moses
Law of Moses
'good promises' (23:14-15)
'good promises' (23:14-15)
'priest' & 'Levite'
'with you'
'with you' (7:12)
17
Epilogue
Careers of the Judges
3:7
Prologue
Paying attention both to the
history
of Israel's early kingship and the
theological
interpretation of that history in the Samuel text....
Our goal is to appreciate the story of the rise of David and his dynasty to the throne of Israel guided by the hand of God.
While the writer is interested in confirming the legitimacy of David's claim to the throne of Judah, his kingdom illustrates some aspects of what the Kingdom of God might be meant to be.
http://www.timemaps.com/history/world-1000bc
http://www.timemaps.com/civilization/Ancient-Israel
http://www.timemaps.com/history/middle-east-1000bc
5
10
21
Eli
Samuel
Ish-Bosheth
(not his real name - see 1 Chron 8:33)
Images courtesy of Zondervan TextbookPlus
The Tel Dan Inscription
Though David paid
a heavy price for abusing his covenant kingship, he still represented God's choice as king over the people of God. He ultimately found atonement, and received the promise of an ongoing dynasty over Judah, expressed in terms of a 'son of God' relationship, foreshadowing the greater
Son to come.
1000
25
1
CHRONICLES
From creation to the post-exilic priesthood via genealogies
(1 Chron. 1–9)
Saul's End
(1 Chron. 10)
David's Reign
(1 Chron. 11–21)
David's
Provision for Solomon, the Priesthood and the Temple
(1 Chron.
22–29)
Solomon's Reign
(2 Chron. 1–9)
The History of Independent Judah
(2 Chron. 10–36)
Basalt monument found in three pieces, with much missing.
Contains reference (in white) to the 'House of David' (
beth dwd
).
Writer may have been the Aramean king Hazael (1 Kings 19:15–17; 2 Kings 8–13).
Writer apparently takes credit for killing King Jehoram of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah (compare 2 Kings 9:21–28; Jehu and Hazael may have had a co-operative relationship).
David "is the first human being in world literature" - historian Baruch Halpern (Provan et al,
Biblical History of Israel
, 217).
Spheres of Control of Saul, David and Solomon
ISRAELITE SOCIETY PICTURED
Nomadic, pastoral, tribal
Settled rural, pastoral & agricultural, tribal
Rural & some urban, pastoral & agricultural, clan-based, elder-guided
Urbanizing, monarchic, kingdom-based administration
1 K. 2:10
Retrospectives on David
David's Ordeal
David's Enthronement
David's Rise
4:6
Saul
31:4
25:1
4:18
Samuel: Last of the Judges
Saul's Failure
8
Former Prophets
Historical Books
Deuteronomistic History?
(w. Ruth, 1-2 Chronicles,
Ezra, Nehemiah & Esther)
Proposed Source Documents for 1–2 Samuel
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
4
7
Ark Narrative
Narrative of David's Rise
16
5:6
Succession Narrative/Court History of David
?
Review: How does the establishment of David as king relate to God's promises to Abraham?
What does the Davidic Covenant add to the promises to Abraham and the Sinai covenant?
It validates a theocratic (God-led) monarchy.
It endorses a dynasty, that of David.
It enshrines Jerusalem as the holy city, and, indirectly and somewhat hesitantly (in 2 Samuel 7),
It endorses Jerusalem's sanctuary as the highest national holy place.
Does David's Israel fall short of the ideal Kingdom of God? If so, how?
Can David's kingdom therefore model the kingdom of God in any way, or not?
Theme: Covenant and Kingdom
The book(s) of 1–2 Samuel wrestle with the question of the compatibility of a monarchy with Israel's covenant relationship with Yahweh.
Israel's struggle over this issue moves through three stages in the course of the narrative
When Religion Runs into Politics
Theocracy
"It is not you they have rejected, but they have rejected me as their king" (1 Sam. 8:7)
8
Troubled Monarchy
"The LORD has sought out a man after his own heart and appointed
him ruler of his people"
(1 Sam. 13:14)
6
Theocratic Monarchy
1 Samuel...
2 Samuel...
Read 2 Samuel 7:1–16
Transition:Ark's Journey (5-6)
Eli
Samuel
Ish-Bosheth
Leader &
Prophet
Priest & Sanctuary
Shiloh (in the north)
Saul's Legitimation
Transition
Plea for a King (8)
Prophetic Anointing (9)
Public Selection (10)
Testing in Combat (11)
Public Confirmation (12)
Samuel
Saul
Eli
Samuel
Ahimelech
Samuel
Abiathar
David
Prophetic Anointing (16)
Testing in Combat (17)
Public Sympathy and Saul's Envy (18–19)
13
16
David's Life on the Run
21
A Failure to Wait (13)
A Flawed Victory (14)
A Failure to Obey (15)
David
David's Elevation
within Judah (21–26)
in Philistia (27–31)
Nathan
THEMES
One thing to notice about this transition is that it separates responsibilities between the roles of ruler, prophet and priest
When Saul makes a sacrifice in 1 Samuel 13, he blurs the line between the carefully separated roles of political leader and prophet.
The Opening Theme: Hannah's Song (1 Samuel 2)
What sorts of values and truths does Hannah's song celebrate?
Then Hannah prayed and said: "My heart rejoices in the LORD; in the LORD my horn1 is lifted high. My mouth boasts over my enemies, for I delight in your deliverance.
2 "There is no one holy like the LORD; there is no one besides you; there is no Rock like our God.
3 "Do not keep talking so proudly or let your mouth speak such arrogance, for the LORD is a God who knows, and by him deeds are weighed.
4 "The bows of the warriors are broken, but those who stumbled are armed with strength.
5 Those who were full hire themselves out for food, but those who were hungry are hungry no more. She who was barren has borne seven children, but she who has had many sons pines away.
6 "The LORD brings death and makes alive; he brings down to the grave and raises up.
7 The LORD sends poverty and wealth; he humbles and he exalts.
8 He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the ash heap; he seats them with princes and has them inherit a throne of honor. "For the foundations of the earth are the LORD's; on them he has set the world.
9 He will guard the feet of his faithful servants, but the wicked will be silenced in the place of darkness. "It is not by strength that one prevails;
10 those who oppose the LORD will be broken. The Most High will thunder from heaven; the LORD will judge the ends of the earth. "He will give strength to his king and exalt the horn of his anointed."
The Closing Theme: David's Song & Oracle (2 Sam. 22:1-23:7)
How does David's oracle, below, 2 Sam. 23:1-7, and his much longer psalm that occupies ch. 22 (= Psalm 18) reflect on the story of David that comes before them?
These are the last words of David: "The inspired utterance of David son of Jesse, the utterance of the man exalted by the Most High, the man anointed by the God of Jacob, the hero of Israel's songs:
2 "The Spirit of the LORD spoke through me; his word was on my tongue.
3 The God of Israel spoke, the Rock of Israel said to me: 'When one rules over people in righteousness, when he rules in the fear of God,
4 he is like the light of morning at sunrise on a cloudless morning, like the brightness after rain that brings grass from the earth.'
5 "If my house were not right with God, surely he would not have made with me an everlasting covenant, arranged and secured in every part; surely he would not bring to fruition my salvation and grant me my every desire.
6 But evil men are all to be cast aside like thorns, which are not gathered with the hand.
7 Whoever touches thorns uses a tool of iron or the shaft of a spear; they are burned up where they lie." (NIV 2011)
Potential debate topic: should we see David more as hero, or more as villain? Find your biblical evidence.
Further Thematic Issues
2 SAMUEL
Leader
Prophet
Priest
Sanctuary
Full transcript