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Hawaii's Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Transcript of Hawaii's Earthquakes and Volcanoes
The islands on the southern most end of the chain of volcanoes, began to form more than 70 million years ago, therefore, many have stopped erupting. Mauna Loa The largest volcano on the planet. Covers half of the Big Island. Also amounts to 85% of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined. One of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. The Hot Spot Theory The Hot Spot Theory is a theory suggested by Tuzo Wilson that suggests that the Hawaiian Chain resulted from the Pacific Plate moving over a deep stationary hot spot in the mantle. Heat from the hots spot produced a persistent source of magma by partially melting the overriding Pacific Plate. The magma rises through he seafloor, forming an active Sea mount (a Submarine Mountain). If the theory is correct, the next volcano should exist south of the Big Island, which is now proven by the presence of Loihi. Tsunamis Tsunamis on average are accounted for more lost lives than the total of all other local disasters.
Tsunamis are often linked to the volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaii.
They can be generated by the seafloor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.
They are usually triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land slides and other mass movements. Types of Earthquakes An Earthquake that is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves is a Tectonic Earthquake.
Volcanic Earthquakes are caused by tectonic forces combined with volcanic activity.
Collapse Earthquakes are small earthquakes in underground caverns and mines.
Explosion earthquakes result from the explosion of nuclear and chemical devices. Types of Volcanoes Composite Volcanoes: Formed by alternating layers of lava and often form snow capped peaks. Between eruptions, they seem extinct. The eruptions are explosive.
Shield volcanoes: Huge in size. Built of may layers of runny lava flows. A broad shaped, gently sloping cone, that is caused by the fluid basaltic lava. This type of volcano is the most common in the Hawaiian Islands.
Cinder cone: A steep conial hill formed above a vent.
Spatter Cones: When hot lava containing just enough explosive gas to prevent the formation of lava flow, but not enough to shattter it into small fragments the lava is torn by expanding gases into the fluid hot clots called splatter. How Old Each Is Hawaii: 300,000 years old
Haleakala: 750,000 years old
Maui: 1,300,000 years old
Kahoolawe: 1,030,000 years old
Lanai: 1,3000,000 years old
Oahu: 3,000,000 years old
Lohi: This island is not yet surfaced and is about 3,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. It may surface in about 50,000 years. The Islands Hawaii Earthquake History
November 1, 2012
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquake/states/hawaii/history.php BIg Island Earthquakes
January 17, 2011
www.instanthawaii.com Earthquake Hazards
July 18, 1997
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/earthquakes.html Heightened Seismic Activity
Feburay 5, 2011
www.theextinctprotocol.wordpress.com Reply to Ask-An-Earthquake-Scientist
Ken Rubin, Assistant Professer
www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/plate-tectonics.html FAQ About Relationships Between Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
March 17, 2011
volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/faq/faqeq.php Hawaiia Volcanoes
June 18, 2001
//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ Mauna Loa Earth's Largest Volcano
Feburary 2, 2006
//hvo.wt.usgs.gov/maunaloa/ Volcanic History of Hawaii
Pacific Disaster Center
www.pdc.orf/iweb/volcano_history.jsp Big Island Volcano
//www.aloha-hawaii.com/big-island/volcanoes/ Hawaii Tsunami Events
Pacific Disaster Center
www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_history.jsp Backgrounder: Relationship between earthquakes, tsunamis
March 11, 2011
news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/wold/2011-03/11_13773765.html Types of earthquakes
August 13, 1998
scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/eq2.htm Types of Volcanoes
library.thinkquest.org/17457 Plate Tectonics and teh Hawaiian Hot spot
//geology.com/usgs/hawaiian-hot-spot/ Hawaiian Island Chain a Hot Spot Creation
Bruce Heezen, Marie Tharpe
January 21, 2005
www.platetectonics.com How Old are the Hawaiian Islands?
www.mainhawaii.org Hawaii Tsunami Events
Pacific DIsaster Center