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Hawaii's Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Describes the natural disasters and explains how they are linked.
by

Tristan Haake

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Hawaii's Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Links Between the Two Hawaii's Earthquakes and Volcanoes By Tristan Haake Earthquake History Most Severe Earthquake: 7.2 magnitude Volcano History Kilauea is the youngest and southern most volcano on the Big Island. Volcanism can also occur at intraplate volcanoes: Volcanoes that have sources deep down in the Earth's mantle that remain in a relatively fixed location to the always migrating plate boundaries. Volcanism is associated with two types of plate boundaries: divergent(pulling apart) and convergent(pushing together). Kilauea east rift zone is continually being wedged apart by the injection of new magma. Much of this magma is stored underground deep within the rift zone. Earthquakes may occur before or during a volcanic eruption because volcanoes and earthquakes are closely related. Earthquakes beneath the active volcanoes are generated by the pressures exerted by magma that never reaches the surface. An earthquake in Hawaii that you can not keep standing up may be because of a local tsunami being generated. Stress changes caused by large earthquakes may either compress or expand nearby magma reservoirs. Violent shaking during large earthquakes can create land slides, fractures and other major ground disturbances that can effect shallow magma reservoirs, such as Kilauea in 1975, that are poised to erupt any way. Where the volcanoes are still active on Hawaii, they can be close to 30 million years old. The volcanoes sit on a hot spot located beneath the southwestern part of the Big Island. The continuous eruptions built up the islands. Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Hulalia have erupted in the past 200 years. Lo'ilihi is the youngest volcano, it is only 1,000 meters beneath the surface of the ocean and it sits just south of the Big Island. EACH ISLAND: Is made up of one or more volcanoes, which 1st erupted on the sea floor and only emerged above the ocean's surface after countless eruptions. Hawaii, the main island, is made up of 5 volcanoes Many of theses volcanoes formed islands that have subsided and eroded beneath sea level, and some of the old volcanoes probably never reached sea level.
The islands on the southern most end of the chain of volcanoes, began to form more than 70 million years ago, therefore, many have stopped erupting. Mauna Loa The largest volcano on the planet. Covers half of the Big Island. Also amounts to 85% of all the other Hawaiian Islands combined. One of the most active volcanoes on Earth. Its most recent eruption was in 1984. The Hot Spot Theory The Hot Spot Theory is a theory suggested by Tuzo Wilson that suggests that the Hawaiian Chain resulted from the Pacific Plate moving over a deep stationary hot spot in the mantle. Heat from the hots spot produced a persistent source of magma by partially melting the overriding Pacific Plate. The magma rises through he seafloor, forming an active Sea mount (a Submarine Mountain). If the theory is correct, the next volcano should exist south of the Big Island, which is now proven by the presence of Loihi. Tsunamis Tsunamis on average are accounted for more lost lives than the total of all other local disasters.
Tsunamis are often linked to the volcanoes and earthquakes in Hawaii.
They can be generated by the seafloor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.
They are usually triggered by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions, land slides and other mass movements. Types of Earthquakes An Earthquake that is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves is a Tectonic Earthquake.
Volcanic Earthquakes are caused by tectonic forces combined with volcanic activity.
Collapse Earthquakes are small earthquakes in underground caverns and mines.
Explosion earthquakes result from the explosion of nuclear and chemical devices. Types of Volcanoes Composite Volcanoes: Formed by alternating layers of lava and often form snow capped peaks. Between eruptions, they seem extinct. The eruptions are explosive.
Shield volcanoes: Huge in size. Built of may layers of runny lava flows. A broad shaped, gently sloping cone, that is caused by the fluid basaltic lava. This type of volcano is the most common in the Hawaiian Islands.
Cinder cone: A steep conial hill formed above a vent.
Spatter Cones: When hot lava containing just enough explosive gas to prevent the formation of lava flow, but not enough to shattter it into small fragments the lava is torn by expanding gases into the fluid hot clots called splatter. How Old Each Is Hawaii: 300,000 years old
Haleakala: 750,000 years old
Maui: 1,300,000 years old
Kahoolawe: 1,030,000 years old
Lanai: 1,3000,000 years old
Molokai: 1,300,000
Oahu: 3,000,000 years old
Kauai: 4,000,000
Lohi: This island is not yet surfaced and is about 3,000 feet below the surface of the ocean. It may surface in about 50,000 years. The Islands Hawaii Earthquake History
USGS
November 1, 2012
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquake/states/hawaii/history.php BIg Island Earthquakes
Instant Hawaii
January 17, 2011
www.instanthawaii.com Earthquake Hazards
USGS
July 18, 1997
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/hazards/earthquakes.html Heightened Seismic Activity
USGS
Feburay 5, 2011
www.theextinctprotocol.wordpress.com Reply to Ask-An-Earthquake-Scientist
Ken Rubin, Assistant Professer
www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/plate-tectonics.html FAQ About Relationships Between Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions
USGS
March 17, 2011
volcanoes.usgs.gov/about/faq/faqeq.php Hawaiia Volcanoes
USGS
June 18, 2001
//hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanoes/ Mauna Loa Earth's Largest Volcano
USGS
Feburary 2, 2006
//hvo.wt.usgs.gov/maunaloa/ Volcanic History of Hawaii
Pacific Disaster Center
www.pdc.orf/iweb/volcano_history.jsp Big Island Volcano
Aloga-Hawaiii
//www.aloha-hawaii.com/big-island/volcanoes/ Hawaii Tsunami Events
Pacific Disaster Center
www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_history.jsp Backgrounder: Relationship between earthquakes, tsunamis
Yang Lina
March 11, 2011
news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/wold/2011-03/11_13773765.html Types of earthquakes
Maggi Glascoe
August 13, 1998
scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/eq2.htm Types of Volcanoes
Oracle'Think Quest
1998
library.thinkquest.org/17457 Plate Tectonics and teh Hawaiian Hot spot
Geology.com
2005
//geology.com/usgs/hawaiian-hot-spot/ Hawaiian Island Chain a Hot Spot Creation
Bruce Heezen, Marie Tharpe
January 21, 2005
www.platetectonics.com How Old are the Hawaiian Islands?
Jouhn Blum
2011
www.mainhawaii.org Hawaii Tsunami Events
Pacific DIsaster Center
www.pdc,org http://prezi.com/ghcosl82du1n/present/?auth_key=uqm8t3k&follow=s6gp7hhxyqpp
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