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Middle and Junior High Schools Graphic Organizer

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by

Becky Wirth

on 15 June 2015

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Transcript of Middle and Junior High Schools Graphic Organizer

Middle and Junior High Schools: Graphic Organizer
(Historical, Present, and Future)

Historically
Junior High
Created in the early 20th century, due to growing disapproval of the 8-4 plan (8 years of Elementary, 4 years of High School)
Many disapproved of the small proportion of students selected for specialized education in preparation for college
The Junior High School held its place as part of the new 6-3-3 plan created (6 years of Elementary [K-6], 3 of Junior High [7-9], and 3 of High School [10-12])
Focus of Junior High Schools was on an academically based curriculum for those seeking higher education, and a vocational based curriculum for those going straight to the workforce
Eventually began focusing equally on the social and personal development of students
Came to be the "guiding principle" of Junior High Schools
Middle school
Development began most rapidly in the mid to late 20th century
Created to focus more on meeting the developmental needs of students
Theorists Eichhorn and Alexander conducted vast amounts of research which supported the grouping of 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students to be most developmentally appropriate
Sought to continue positive practices of the Junior High, while discouraging High School aspects
i.e. competitive sports, honor societies, etc.
Presently
Junior High
Prominence has decreased throughout America
Known to have isolated instructional planning as well as lack of team-based learning
individualized learning of subjects, no affiliation between teachers or relations between subjects
Lack of necessary or personable guidance for students
Curriculum focused mostly on preparation for high school
Subject-centered emphasis
leaving little room in terms of student inclusion
Middle School
Student-centered learning
High expectations held for students by teachers and students themselves
Provides students with necessary guidance by a one-on-one guidance counselor
Curriculum that encourages physical, psychological, and developmental growth
Utilizes interdisciplinary team organization among teachers
Emphasis on communication between school, home, and community
Provides inclusion for students with special needs and/or disabilities
Heterogeneous grouping of students
Future Models
Most likely, Junior High Schools will continue to fade out as theorists continue to build upon the Middle School Model
Future Middle School Models will continue to build on the 5 elements:
1). trusting and respectful relationships
2). social and emotional well-being of students
3). teamwork with collaboration among teachers, administrators, students, and community
4). evidence-based programs and decision making
5). shared vision of the mission and goals to raise student achievement
May use past drop-out rates to improve the schools
May also begin focusing on growing globally
Similarities between Middle School and Junior High Models
Created for students in the middle ages
In the beginning, both lacked a specified mission and/or purpose
Both find difficulties in overcoming the obstacle of assessment as an overarching element of curriculum
Serve as a transition period between elementary and high school
Differences between Middle School and Junior High
Middle School uses student-centered learning, while Junior High focuses on subject-centered learning
Middle School organizes students into heterogeneous grouping while Junior High organizes students homogeneously based on aspects such as academic achievement
Middle School teachers work together to create curriculum and instruction alongside team-based learning, while Junior High work on these in isolation, providing students with different instructors periodically throughout the school day
Middle Schools place great emphasis on guidance for every student, and Junior High Schools generally provide one guidance counselor for every couple hundred students
Rationale
Provide students with more academically rigorous schooling earlier on, in order to better prepare them for higher education
Help middle aged students focus on building toward college or vocational futures
Eventually made meeting the developmental, personal, and social needs of students a priority
Rationale
Avoid "mistakes" of Junior High
Create a student-centered experience that will meet the developmental needs of students as individuals
Grouping students into a school with the most developmentally equal peers
Rationale
Focus primarily on the academic growth of students
More of a "junior" high school, versus a separate level of schooling with its own purpose
Work independently as faculty, focusing on specific subject areas as individuals
Rationale
Give the middle age grades a unique mission and purpose
Create a heterogeneous, diverse community for students
Provide students with the opportunity and support necessary to grow personally, academically, and developmentally
Works Cited

Manning, M., & Bucher, K. (2012). Teaching in the middle school (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill.


By: Rebecca Wirth
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