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Transcript of Anglo-Saxons
Life of the Common People
Religion was not a source of spiritual revelation,it was a means of ensuring success in material things.
Traveling was not uncommon, travelers were advised to shout, make noises, and blow horns otherwise strangers were considered to be outlaws and could be killed out of hand
In the country side most of the people lived by farming (wheat, rye, oats, and barley were the most frequently grown crops)
Most lived in wooden houses that they had built themselves
Most men, women, and children helped on the farm for a job
Society was divided into three classes: Thanes,Churls, and Thralls.
The population was very small; 1 million people at the time
Almost everyone lived in tiny villages. Each village was self sufficient, only needed a few things from outside salt and iron.
Cultural Issues, Language.& Literacy
Annals of Ulster in 700 there was such famine in Ireland that people turned to eating each other. This famine was preceded by a castle, so that people were desperate at this stage
The massacre of 1002 was followed by a great famine, in which not just the cockles, but the wheat itself came close to failing as the sense of crisis and apocalypse frew sharper.
Dates of Importance
Dates of Importance
Wore wool/ linen hip length under shirts with long sleeves
A tunic was pulled over their head and reached down to the knees
Wore belts and pouches,knives, and other accessories hung from it
Shoes were usually made from a single piece of leather, with extra piece of leather on the sole
After the Norman Conquest, Kings began to govern through a smaller but permanent inner council of advisers and officials.
The English we speak in today's world descended from Old English, and the Old English is most commonly related to Danish, German, Norwegian,Icelandic, and Dutch.
The Roman alphabet replaces the Runic alphabet.
The first letter of the Runic alphabet were F,U,Th, A, R, and H.
In the Anglo- Saxon period, which was (449 AD-1066 AD) books were all copied and illustrated by hand one at a time.
The Monks played a huge role in preserving the literature of this period by laboriously copying all the known books by hand and keeping them in their monasteries
"The Wife's Lament" was one of the every few Anglo-Saxon poems to explore a women's point of view.
Old English poems were written to celebrate to family,ruler, and community to show how terrible it was to be cut off from the group.
The Eveter Book was one of the most important books surviving of the Old English.
Many of the writings that monks copied down during the Anglo- Saxon were destroyed during the two waves of
More were destroyed when Henry VIII of England wrote the Church of Rome and ordered destruction of monasteries throughout England.
Plague of Justinian arrived in 544. A disease borne by rats in Egypt-long the breadbasket of the Mediterranean world- spread to the Bysantine capital at Constantinople ( modern day Istanbul) where by some accounts it claimed 5,000 lives a day and killed nearly half the ancient metropolis population. A total 25 million and 100 million in Europe and Asia had died.
In 664 AD a plague returned and swept through England killing Archbishop of Canterbury.
Attacks of plagues become less frequent toward the end of the period.
Norman Conquest-invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers. Led by Duke William II of Normandy, later William the Conqueror.
Anglo-Saxons period ends with the Norman Conquest and the battle over control of England.
The Conquest of England-in1066 a.d. by the Norman French,under William the conqueror, Duke of Normandy, ended 6 centuries of Anglo- Saxon domain 6.
Anglo- Saxon England was developed into 7 small kingdoms after the Anglo-Saxon conquest of central Britain.
They had a monarchy as their type of government
Kings should display the heroic ideal and be known for an extraordinary and courageous feat or success in war, all preceded by some boasting
Johnson, David and Elaine Trenarane, eds. Reading in Medieval Texts: Interpreting Old and Middle English Literature. NY: Oxford University Press 2005.
Mursell, Gordon. The Wisdom of the Anglo-Saxon. Oxford: Lion Publishing, 1997.
Battle of Hastings: It was a bloody all day battle. King Harold II of England was defeated by the Norman forces of William the Conqueror.
Anglo-Saxon and viking societies were violent ones, at least by our standards. With many wars,feuds, and deadly quarrels.
For vikings to die in battle was a glorious thing. Believed that the warrior would be conveyed to Odin's heavenly wall of Valhalla.
The vikings "Danes" caused many raids and attacked the monastery in Northumbria and killed many of the monks. After King Alfred led the fight against them, some vikings settled to live peacefully.
Saxon times reflected the level of violence by allowing people to compensate a victim's depending on the social status of victim.
Both Saxon and vikings barred the dead with considerable ceremony.
The common weapon was a spear.
The Legend of Lady Godiva- she was married to Leoflit was healthy and had power. She begged her husband to lower the taxes and he told her if she would ride around naked and he would lower the taxes, and he did.
St.Augustine was a bishop sent by pope to persuade all the Saxons to become Christians, because when the Saxons first settled in Britain they were all Pagan.
In Anglo- Saxon culture and literature to be a hero was to be a warrior. A hero had to be a strong intelligent and courageous, and warriors had to be willing to face any odds and fight to the death for their glory and people. Literature Beowulf is perhaps the perfect example of a hero. The Anglo-Saxon is well defined by the actions of Beowulf. It is obvious that Beowulf is the quintessential hero. Strength and courage are unparallelled and he much more humble than many of the corrupted warriors around him. I resolved when I set out on the sea, sat down in the sea- boat with my band of men, that I should altogether fulfill the will of your people or else fall in slaughter, fast in the foe's grasp. I shall achieve a dead of manly courage or else have lived to see in this mead hall my ending day. (Beowulf 13)" Beowulf shows courage and earns courage by speaking these words.
King Alfred the Great
Savior of the English language
Founder of English prose
Only English king to be called "The Great"
United the tribes somewhat successfully against the Norse and was a patron of literature
Grew from legends of one chieftain who held out better than most.
Rulers & Type of Governments
Dates of Importance
Anglo-Saxon are located in London.
Early Anglo- Saxons lived in small, closely unit groups.
Most of the unit groups would be blood relatives, and life was harsh as part of the Anglo Saxons.
Anyone who was cut off from the group or an outcast would have trouble surviving.
After the initial impetus of settlement the Englisc went through a period of consolidation during which many small kingdoms sprang up. By the end of the seventh century there were seven main kingdoms whose rulers were vying for position as overlord of the Englisc: 1.Northumbria ( Angles loving North of the River Humber.) This eventually stretched to Edinburgh- created by Edwin a Saxon war lord,2. Mercia ( Middle Angles), 3. East Anglia ( east Angles), 4.Essex ( East Saxons), 5.Wessex ( West Saxons)) This eventually took in Cornwall, which became fully English,6. Sussex ( South Saxons),7. Kent ( Formed from the original Jutes who landed with Henigst in 449 A.D and who formed the Men of Kent).
Dates of Importance
wore an under dress of linen or wool with long sleeves and a draw string neck
sleeves were fastened with clamps for wealthier women or drawn together with braid or string for poorer women
the outer dress was a tube of material
a belt was worn for which various accessories were hung
rings, bracelets, and beaded necklaces were popular