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Learning Theories Through the Ages - Assessment 2A - Group 1

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Synthina Coules

on 22 January 2017

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Transcript of Learning Theories Through the Ages - Assessment 2A - Group 1

Learning
Theories Through the Ages

Learning Theories provide a framework to better our understanding of how information is absorbed, processed and retained.
As individuals learn in a variety of ways, it is through examining these theories that a better understanding can be developed of the complex process of learning (Adult Learning Australia, 2016).
Learning Theories can be employed as guidelines, promoting the best techniques and strategies to improve learning.
References
Brooks, Martin G. and Grennon Brooks, J. Search of Understanding, edited by Martin G. Brooks, and Jacqueline Grennon Brooks, ASCD, 1999. ProQuest Ebook Central, Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/lib/swin/detail.action?docID=280354

Comparing Learning Theories ~ Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism & Humanistic Learning Theories Comparison Among L. Theories. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/9332688/Comparing_Learning_Theories_Behaviorism_Cognitivism_Constructivism_and_Humanistic_Learning_Theories_Comparison_Among_L._Theories

Funderstanding: Inspiring people who care about learning. (2011). Retrieved from www.funderstanding.com/theory/behaviorism/

Hein, G. (1991), Constructivist Learning Theory. Retrieved from https://www.exploratorium.edu/education/ifi/constructivist-learning

Jain, T. (2017). Essay: Humanistic approach to learning means a process that is inevitable and unique for every individual. Preservearticles.com. Retrieved from http://http://www.preservearticles.com/2011082912260/essay-humanistic-approach-to-learning-means-a-process-that-is-inevitable-and-unique-for-every-individual.html

Learning theories. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.learning-theories.com/cognitivism.html
Sarah Scott, S & Palincsar, A. (2013). Sociocultural Theory. Retrieved from
http://www.education.com/reference/article/sociocultural-theory/

Munoz, L, Life Long Learning.(n.d.). Retrieved from https://lynnmunoz.wordpress.com/learning-theories/constructivist-learning-theory/

Piaget, J. (2009). Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Constructivism
Lets take a look at some theories that have developed over the years
The study of the first two over time, Vygotsky (1978) believed that the foundation of behaviour is best studied, in the process of change, over time. One can only truly see how development happens, is to see it happen over the course of a lifetime.
1.
3.
Behaviorism
Behaviourism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive; he/she responds to environmental stimuli. The novice starts with a blank slate and the behaviour is moulded through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the chances that the former behaviour will continue to happen again. In contrast, disciplinary action negative and positive will happen again.
Behaviourism is often used by teachers or teacher aids specialising in behaviour problems who reward or punish student behaviours. Behaviourism does not account for all kinds of learning, since it disregards the activity of the mind, and it does not explain some types of learning techniques.
Positive demonstrates the application of a motivational behaviour towards positive reinforcement.
Negative demonstrates the withholding of a motivational behaviour.
Learning is therefore defined as the act or experience of a person that learns. They acquire knowledge or skills by instruction or study. It also is defined by a modification of a behavioral lending by experience. (as exposure to conditioning)
Positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective, such as treatments for human disorders including autism, anxiety disorders and antisocial behaviours.
Technology greatly enhances the ability to engage and manipulate resources and to represent knowledge in a variety of ways; whilst facilitating communication through collaborative learning that emphasises building rather than just the transmission of knowledge; unconstrained by time and physical location (Munoz).
(Brooks & Brooks 1999, p. 4) suggest that new knowledge is created as we synthesize our new experiences with our current knowledge. We construct our own knowledge from the world in which we live and learning is an active - not a passive - activity.
Constructivist learning theory contends that through experiencing new things and reflecting on those experiences, individuals construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world. Learners construct knowledge based upon their prior knowledge and learning from the world around them.
Social Constructivism
Once we understand the learning process of constructivism, we can take another little step further and discuss Social Constructivism. Vygotsky believed that a learners culture and social interactions were of importance for their cognitive development. Not only do students learn from their own experiences but also from the guidance of teachers, adults and their peers.

Scott, recounted Wetstch (1991) with three principles in Vygotsky’s studies.
The learner's individual development foundations come from social interactions: the “Genetic law of development”: “Any function of the child's cultural development appears on the stage twice, or on two planes, first the social, then the psychological, first between people as an intermental category, then within the child as an intramental category” (Vygotsky, 1931/1997, pp. 105–106).
“Human Action”: the use of tools in which a learner facilitates the co-construction of knowledges. Tools include language, computers, paint brushes etc.
2.
Humanistic learning
Humanistic theory has a high emphasis on the student and how they learn, rather than on the teacher and their style of teaching. Humanistic theory takes into account the individual needs, age and interests of the student so all the learning materials will then be focused on their individual needs.
The teacher and students teaching and learning needs may clash. However, they must both respect one another. The teacher must accept the students learning traits and organise a learning program to the students individual needs.
As the humanistic approach is student centered the teacher must be able to understand the student first and then teach. The teacher should be aware about the students interests, what their personality and capabilities are and then adjust their teaching practices accordingly. The discipline of learning is up to the student; the teacher's role is not to force the student to study/learn but to encourage the student to have self discipline.

The humanistic role of the teacher requires them to do less teaching, and act as a guide or friend to the student. This form of teaching allows the students room to grow and nurture individually at their own rate, rather than in a set classroom where all students are taught together. (Jain, 2017)
Cognitivism
Cognitivism is the study in psychology that focuses on rational practicability, through how people understand, consider, recall, learn, solve problems and become interested to one motivation rather than another.

Piaget's (1936) theory of cognitive development is about how learners build a mental sample of the world. Piaget was not trying to classify children’s I.Q. or if they could spell or count well; he was more interested in essential connotation.
Opinion of Modern research is that people process information like computers.
The cognitivist model basically discusses that the “black box” of the mind should be opened and understood. The learner is viewed as an information processor (like a computer).
Over the years learning theories have shaped the many changes in education. These learning theories may have similarities or be an extension of another theory. For example, constructivism and social constructivism or can be completely different such as humanistic theory and cognitivism theory.
The most important aspect of all the different learning theories is the application of the theory into practice. Individuals learn differently and may fit into one or more learning theory, but not one theory fits everyone.
Cognitivism focuses on how the brain processes and stores information. As new information enters the sensory register, it is processed in the short-term memory and then stored in long-term memory. New information can be influenced by an individual’s previous beliefs, attitudes and values. New information is easier to retain if it is meaningful; if it can be linked or associated with previously known information (Comparing Learning Theories).

Graphics and Backgrounds

Alamy. (2016). Retrieved from
http://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-human-head-silhouette-with-a-jigsaw-piece-cut-out-on-the-wooden-background-118689463.html

Kaur, N. (2012). Orange Jigsaw Piece Clip Art. Retrieved from
http://www.clker.com/clipart-orange-jigsaw-piece-1.html

Lay, K. (2013). Jigsaw Puzzle – Pastel 7 Clip Art. Retrieved from
http://www.clker.com/clipart-jigsaw-puzzle-pastel-7.html

National Jigsaw Day. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.squizzes.com/national-jigsaw-day/

Neuro Tration.(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.neuronation.com/science/brain-games

Online Learning Theories. (2017). Retrieved from http://esanderslearningtheories.weebly.com/cognitivism.html

Peanizles. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.pea/nizles.com/2013/05

Quotes Gram. (2017). Retrieved from http://quotesgram.com/vygotsky-quotes-famous/

Serkan. (2012). Green Jigsaw Piece Large Clip Art. Retrieved from
http://www.clker.com/clipart-green-jigsaw-puzzle-piece-large.html

What Teachers Should Know About Learning Theories. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kb.edu.hku.hk/theory_humanism.html
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