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Rise of Dictators
Transcript of Rise of Dictators
Benito Mussolini- "Il Duce"- The Leader Promises: Revive economy
Give Italy strong leader Rise to Power: Followers acted violently and threatened rebellion
1922- Fascists March on Rome. Fear of revolution leads to Mussolini becoming Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, Emperor Hirohito, Josef Stalin & Adolf Hitler Total Control Black Shirts- Fascist Secret Police
Controlled radio broadcasts
Allied with business leaders to control workers. Japan-Hirohito Empire: Emperor Hirohito's power "reinstated" after unrest caused by Great Depression.
Military leaders ruled in the Emperor's name. Rise to Power: Military Coup removed democratic Gov't Promises: Revive Economy
Restore Japanese Honor
Build Pacific Empire Political Policy: Suppressed/Censored political and social opposition
Allied with Italy and Germany U.S.S.R.- Stalin Communism: Total Government control of politics, society, and economy.
Conflict between economic classes. "Class struggle" One Party Dictatorship: Communist Party
General Secretary/ Premier Joseph (Josef) Stalin.
Stalin ruled 1929-1953 Promises: Revive economy
Strengthen military Rise to Power: Stalin becomes head of Communist Party after death of Vladimir Lenin.
Consolidates power with Great Purge Political Policy 5 Year Plan 1928: Modernize U.S.S.R. economy
Needed to be strong to resist capitalist nations
Concentrated on infrastructure & military production
Very little production of consumer goods
Plan significantly improved Economy
Plan drastically lowered quality of life for millions Collectivism: Gov't seized private farms
Created Collectives- large gov't owned farms
Ineffectiveness caused widespread famine
Peasants protested by destroying livestock and produce
In response Stalin withheld food completely, starving 5-10 million people to death mostly in Ukraine Propaganda poster featuring Stalin and several works commissioned as part of his 5 year plan.
The text says "The results of the 5 year plan show the working class is not only capable of destroying the old but also of building the new" Great Purge: Executed/jailed political opponents and "disloyal" military leaders
At least 1 million people executed at this time
Estimated 15 million killed through execution and famine under Stalin KGB: Brutally effective Communist Secret Police Gulags: Prison camps located in remote Siberia Germany- Hitler Nazism: A type of fascism
Gov't control of Politics, Society and Economy
Conflict between "Races" One Party Dictatorship: National-Socialist party a.k.a. Nazis
Adolf Hitler- Fuhrer- "Leader" Promises: Revive Economy
Abolish Treaty of Versailles
Restore German Military & Pride. Rise to Power: Makes other parties illegal 1920s- Wiemar Republic- Democratic Gov't that was blamed for Great Depression Stalin's Legacy: Greatly Improved economy
Vastly improved military strength
Created a brutal terror state
Executed an estimated 15 million of his own citizens. Why is this a lesser known fact than the Holocaust ??(estimated 6 million killed) Political Policies Ignore Treaty of Versailles: Rebuild Military
Stop war reparations Fix economy: Expand Industry
Public works projects Master Race Theory Aryan Race Supreme
Jewish Race lowest
All other Europeans in between Anti-Semitism: Anti-Jewish sentiment
Germans wanted to persecute and eliminate "inferior race" Scape Goat Theory: Blamed Jews and Wiemar Republic for German problems Holocaust: Systematic murder of at least 6 million people
Victims mostly Jewish, political opponents as well "The Jew: Start Wars, Make Wars Longer" Anti-Jewish Policies Nuremburg Laws 1935: Series of laws persecuting Jewish people Mein Kampf- 1925 "My Struggle"
Hitlers book. Spelled out his plans
Mandatory for Germans to own during his reign Reading Mein Kampf now requires gov't permisson in Germany Propaganda & Censorship: Nazis infamous for Propaganda
Gov't controls what citizens hear and see
Spread Master Race theory 1932 many Nazis elected to the Reichstag (Parliament) 1933 Hitler named Chancellor 1933 Reichstag Fire- Hitler gets "emergency" dictator powers