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How has the leaking of technology into education settings ma

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Laura McDonald

on 7 November 2014

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Transcript of How has the leaking of technology into education settings ma

How has the integration of technology into education settings manipulated social and academic results of students?
"Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources." (Richey, 2008)

Social Advances in Technology
A popular choice for tablets and software in Government schools. They offer access to a global community of experienced educators.

Since 2003, Intel Tech Courses have reached around 50,000 teachers in Australia. A full range of programs are available for teachers to ensure they are up to date with current technology.

Education in the 21st century
Educational technology and postive academic achievement
Negative Aspects Of Technology In Education

Technology represents a fundamental and social change to learning, shifting from passive acquisition of someone else’s ideas to active learning experiences helping to empower students to inquire, collaborate, critique, problem-solve and create thorough understanding (Male. T, 2013) The portability and convenience of such technologies allow any time access for students.
The growth of technology in our schools challenges many traditional models of teaching and learning, including the role of the learner as an author and producer of knowledge rather than a consumer; and therefore the power relationship is somewhat shifted. To be successful as an educator, with such technologies overtaking traditional methods teachers must move from ‘deliverer of content’ to simply be an integral part of the learning journey.

Bozorgmanesh, M. (2011). Online Classes and Traditional Classes in adult education. Nature and Science, 9(8), 81-84.

Brown, B. W., & Liedholm, C. E. (2002). Can Web Courses Replace the Classroom in Principles of Microeconomics? American Economic Review, 92(2), 444-448.

Butler, Des, Campbell, Marilyn and Kift. (2009). Cyber bullying in schools and the law: is there an effective means of addressing the power imblanace? Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law.

Cavanagh, R. F., Reynolds, P. S., & Romanoski, J. T. (2004). Information and communication technology learning in the classroom: The influence of students, the class-group, teachers and the home.

Christensen, R. (2002). Effects of Technology Integration Education on the Attitudes of Teachers and Students. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34(4), 411-433.

Digedu. (2014, April 29). Technology Use in the Classroom: Benefits & Barriers [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ru82F07TKA000

Duchesne, S., McMaugh, A., Bochner, S., & Krause, K. L. (2012). Educational psychology for learning and teaching (4th ed.). South Melbourne: Cengage Learning.

Education Technology and Mobile Learning. (2014). "The ultimate simplified guide to the use of evernote in education, Retrived 28/10/14, from, www.educatorstechnology.com/2012/06/ultimate-simplified-guide-to-use-of.html

Gikas, J.,, Grant, M., (2013). Mobile computing devices in higher education: Student perspectives on learning with cellphones, smartphones & social media
Intel 'Engage'
One particular software applicaton by Intel was one called ‘Engage.’
The 'Engage' program is designed for students and teachers to engage with others in the community to share and discuss information, join forums, add discussions and help find inspiring resources for the classroom. By joining this online community you can host and listen to ‘webinars’ on a multitude of topics.

This kind of social advancement allows teachers unlimited access to worldwide resources, resulting in diversity in teaching methods and exposure to different ideas to expand and improve classroom lessons.
Countries that Intel ‘Engage’ program has spread to, including Russia, Korea, China, India.

According to the Australian Department of science, education and training (2004) the classroom environment was associated less with information technology than was anticipated.
Technology As a Time-Wasting Device
Academic Limitations Of Virtual Classes vs Live Learning
Lack Of Teacher Understanding Limits Students Academic Input
21st Century Technology in Schools- Research Study
Young students, in various Primary School were given personal Ipads/tablets controlled mainly by the students to use both in the classroom and at home.
The inclusion of technology is a system designed to enhance students learning and knowledge, however, the process may be seen as a time-wasting device.
The process of setting up the system, uploading and downloading files, accessing internet connections, opening documents and locating hardware are steps that must be followed to ensure a dynamic lesson is created. More focus is being spent on technical management.
Along side this it is common for computer systems to experience technical difficulties such as poor connectivity and loss of files. This will impact the notion of education for students.

Technology is commonly seen as an integrating, communicative platform, however, through the integration of a communal device in classrooms, such as 'smart boards', negative results may be noticeable.
By allowing each student individually to understand and operate the device, a lot of tine will be wasted.
The teacher may construct the lesson as selecting a percent of students to use the device. This will limit equal opportunities and create an unfair learning environment.
Results found, enormous gains in enhancing the learning environment. High levels of enthusiasm and engagement and a positive rise of interaction between students and teachers.

However, when teachers were asked for their opinion of the devices, many neglected to open up to the affordances of the 21st century technologies, as many prefer to retain complete control of learning.

Importance of adjusting to social and technological changes
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that technology is an effective means for addressing educational needs, goals and requirements.
The growth of technology in our classrooms can somewhat shift the power relationship. New technology is continuing to challenege traditional methods of teaching and learning, including the role of the learner as an author, and producer of knowledge rathan then purely a consumer.

Teachers must adjust to moving from a 'deliverer of content' to simply, an intergral part of the learning journey.
"How are existing teachers going to adapt to the new professional landscape of technology based classrooms"
(Tait, 2013).
An important factor affecting the quality of a child's experience with computers may be altered by the teachers attitude (Christensen, 2002).
According to Young (2004), too much money is being spent on technology, yet not enough is being invested in educating teachers in the correct methods on how to use it effectively.
This inability may lead to short-cut teaching, such as reliance on placing all information on a PowerPoint presentation. This will disengage students and increase laziness.
According to Jonaseen and Marra (2001) online courses do not suitably address:
Problem solving
Constructive learning
Authentic assessments (reliance on quizzes and multiple choice)
Cognitive scaffolding tools
Pacing of learning activities
Direct instruction of technology use
high achievement in areas such as:
Improved student behaviour
Engagement and enjoyment
Increased attendance
Improved opportunities for education
Professional development
Increased efficiency in the classroom administrative tasks
Improved communication among stakeholders including parents, teachers, students and administration.
enhanced technological skills
strengthening of the neural pathways
building cognitive capacity
(Grinager, 2006)
New digital technologies involve the adoption of the notion of 'multiliteracies' a plural understanding of the literacy that encompasses a range of contemporary teaching modes such as audio, video and hypertexts. (Tait, 2012)
The term literacy no longer refers to the ability to access written texts, it now involves both the initial textural form of meaning making as well as a range of other modes from the visual , the spatial and the aural. (Tait, 2012)
Blooms Taxonomy for Thinking
Children using technology in the classroom are thought o be gaining higher order thinking skills where the learners think and analyse information in more complex ways (Duchesne, McMaugh, Bochner & Krause, 2012)

- A study by Digedu in February 2014.
-620 US K-12 teachers were surveyed.
-Digedu. (2014, April 29). Technology Use in the Classroom: Benefits & Barriers [Video file].
Male. T, Burden. K. (2013). Access Denied? Twenty-first-century technology in schools.
Technology, Pedagogy and Education. pp 1-15.

Interview With Year 5 Student, North Epping Public School and Year 12 student, Cheltenham Girls High School
1. I learn better when i use technology
2. Technology makes learning more enjoyable
3. I am good at learning things
4. I can use technology better than my teachers
5. I use technology frequently at school
6. I use technology frequently at home
7. I am better with technology than my parents
Mount Colah Public School Survey
Students aged 5-13 were questioned at an 'After School Care' setting
Results: Most students have access to technology, however teacher's are not using it on a daily basis.
References Continued
Image reference: http://www.bibb.k12.ga.us/Page/18899
By Claudia Mackinnon, Laura Mcdonald, Katie Philp and Stephanie Solinas
image reference: https://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540sept10/2010/11/14/commentary-on-multiliteracies/
image reference: http://www.examiner.com/article/innovators-rejoice-using-technology-to-support-creative-minds-the-classroom
Cyber bullying is bullying through the medium of technology, (most often social media), in schools
Most prevalent among school students.
Cyber bullying has worse consequences compared to face-to-face bullying because: the perpetrator is anonymous, creates a larger audience and the victim is always accessible.
Anonymous perpetrator: heightened feelings of invincibility and lessened feelings of guilt or conscience. It is also thought to Results: increased depression and anxiety prevalence in school students, higher number of absent days and lower academic results
Cyber bullying
Negative social impacts on the digital native
Social media as a distraction
Positive: social media assists in creating collective intelligence which is the intellectual engagement between individuals resulting in new ideas being formed.
Negatives: Digital native students lack the ability to critically think, and therefore conceptually understand social media when using it for learning.
Lack of structure in technologically, or social media, centered lessons negatively impacts the students' learning.
"Bring your own device" phenomena
Results: By not banning the use of mobile devices in the classroom, social media can be assimilated into the learning environment without being a distraction as students are presented with this constant temptation and so learn to ignore it.
Digital native and digital immigrant relationship
Binary = new relationship between students and teachers
Digital natives (those who instinctively know how to use technology)
Digital immigrants (those who have struggled to learn the basics)
Students have constant and easy access to the internet
Result: teachers are now seen as being unnecessary in the classroom.
Digital immigrants are actually seen as better learners compared to digital natives because of their ability to critically think, their superior social reliance skills
Specifically, better communication in learning
Result: contributing more to discussions and listening to and taking in other peoples' ideas.
Teachers are needed as digital natives need to learn how to critically think when researching using technology.
A study that controlled prior achievement and socioeconomic
status found that grade four students who reported using more
technology at school to edit papers were likely to have a higher total
English/language arts test scores and higher writing scores . (Grinager, 2006)

A study that compared student test scores on writing and essay tests found that those students who used a computer to take the test performed significantly better than those who took the test using paper and pencil. (Grinager, 2006)
A study in 1998 found that both regular and special needs children in technology rich environments experienced positive effects on achievement in all major areas such as maths, English and science. (Grinager, 2006)
knowing and understanding
evaluating and analysing

Concluding Points
From research of our driving question, we can conclude that, the implementation of technology in schools is increasingly becoming more and more inevitable.

Teachers must accommodate to the changing academic environment and adjust attitudes to drive students in the right direction, encourage individual learning and take advantage and educate themselves with new technologies.

Today, in the 21st century, new technologies necessitate the adoption of multi-literacies. For the education system to prepare it's graduates for life in the 21st century, they must work on skills, not solely for textual literacy but for technological multi-literacies that are very much a part of todays society.

Through completing education solely through virtual classrooms there is no exposure to academic structures such as:
a focus on handwriting with a large reliance on dot points and broken down text
limitations on textbooks, they are not all located online
no enforcement of group work
no practice in communicative procedures
no interpersonal relationships between students and teachers
Individuals that are not technically savvy or have limited access to technology will not be able to maintain learning as simply or fluently as others.
Brown and Liedholm (2002) conducted a qualitative analysis through the comparative notion of virtual students and live learning students and results state that:
"virtual students performed significantly worse on examinations with most virtual students having problems applying basic concepts in sophisticated ways".
As all communicative processes are conducted through online platforms there is no immediacy in responses. It may take hours or days for a response of an academic question to be received, consequently limiting students ability to move forward in a task.
Grinager, H. (2006). How educational technology leads to improved student achievement. Education issues. retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/portals/1/documents/educ/item013161.pdf

Intel; Education. (2014). Retrieved October 27, 2014, from www.intel.com.au/content/www/au/en/education/intel-education.html

Jonassen, D. H., & Marra, R. M. (2001). Limitations of Online Courses for Supporting Constructive Learning. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 2(4), 303-317.

Kjalander, S. (2011). Designs for Learning in an Extended Digital Environment.

Male. T, Burden. K. (2013). Access Denied? Twenty-first-century technology in schools. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. pp 1-15. doi: 10.1080/1475939X.2013.864697

Mao, J. (2014). Social media for learning: A mixed methods study on high school students' technology affordances and perspectives.

Mazer, J. P., Murphy, R. E., & Simonds, C. J. (2007). I'll See You On ''Facebook'': The Effects of Computer-Mediated Teacher Self-Disclosure on Student Motivation, Affective Learning, and Classroom Climate. Communication Education, 53(1), 1-15.

Richey, R.C. (2008). Reflections on the 2008 AECT Definitions of the Field. TechTrends. 52(1) 24-25Tait, G. (2012). Making sense of mass education. Port Melbourne, VIC: Cambridge University Press

Thompson, C., Gray, K., Kim, H. (2014). How socia are social media tehnologies (SMTs)? A linguistic analysis of university students' experiences of using SMTs for learning.

Young, J. R. (2004, November 12). When Good Technology Means Bad Teaching. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p. A31. Retrieved from http://web.augsburg.edu/~krajewsk/chronicle-11-10-04.pdf
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