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Chapter 9: Organizing the Body of your Speech
Transcript of Chapter 9: Organizing the Body of your Speech
Formulate an Organizing Question:
Should indicate ideas and information necessary to develop your topic
Develop the Key Ideas
The "4 S's"
Example: James P. Hoffa, LLB, General President of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters on the construction of Keystone XL
Jobs might not be in such short supply like they once were in Michigan and elsewhere. But good-paying jobs still are. That’s why the Teamsters support the Keystone XL pipeline project that would allow North America to produce more of the world’s oil supply...
Completing the final segment of the pipeline from Nebraska to the Canadian border would employ upwards of 2,500 Teamsters...
The Keystone XL pipeline would contribute approximately $3.4 billion to the U.S. gross domestic product. It would support a combined total of 42,100 jobs and approximately $2 billion in earnings nationwide.
Step 4: Connect the Key Ideas
• Transitions are essential and a smooth way to lead into the next idea.
• Types of transitions: complementary, casual, contrasting, and chronological
There many types of divisions for the body of a speech. Some are:
Example: Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war....
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract... that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom.
(variation of the problem-solution division)
1. Establishes a need or deficiency in the present system
2. Presents a proposal to meet the need
3. Demonstrates how the proposal satisfies the need
4. Suggests a plan for implementing the proposal
Divide the Speech into Key Ideas
Main points are organized according to their physical proximity or geography
Appropriate for discussing the parts of an object or place
Follows a time sequence: Appropriate for explaining procedures or processes
Example: Soft and Chewy Chocolate Chip Cookies Recipes by Martha Stewart
First, preheat oven to 350 degrees. In a small bowl, whisk together the flour and baking soda; set aside. In the bowl of an electric mixer fitted with the paddle attachment, combine the butter with both sugars; beat on medium speed until light and fluffy. Reduce speed to low; add the salt, vanilla, and eggs. Beat until well mixed, about 1 minute. Add flour mixture; mix until just combined. Stir in the chocolate chips.
Second, drop heaping tablespoon-size balls of dough about 2 inches apart on baking sheets lined with parchment paper.
Lastly, bake until cookies are golden around the edges, but still soft in the center, 8 to 10 minutes. Remove from oven, and let cool on baking sheet 1 to 2 minutes. Transfer to a wire rack, and let cool completely. Store cookies in an airtight container at room temperature up to 1 week.
Organized according to special memory device (alliteration, rhyme, initial letter that spells a word)
Simple, rigid, organizational approach for a persuasive speech:
1. Establish a compelling problem
2. Present convincing solution(s)
Used for tracing a condition or action from its causes to its effects (or vice verse)
Key Ideas: I. Effects
Example from the Book: 6 Guidelines for Better Listening
L--Look at the other person
D--Don't change the subject
E--Express emotions with control