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Transcript of ABC Book
Civil Rights Movement
in Atlanta In 1940, part of the Civil Rights Movement began in Atlanta, the capital city of Georgia. Leaders for the movement were chosen, and over the following 30 years, African Americans gradually began gaining equal rights in the large city. A is for Atlanta Boycotts were a form of peaceful protest often used during the Civil Rights Movement. In Atlanta, a group called the Southern Christian Leadership Conference held boycotts against merchants who refused to desegregate their stores. B is for Boycott One of the largest and most successful social movements in Georgia, the Civil Rights Movement, composed largely of black Georgians, was the struggle for full civil rights and racial equality. C is for the Civil Rights Movement One of the main goals of the Civil Rights Movement, desegregation was the end of separation of groups based on race. This included desegregation of public schools, buses, and even golf courses. D is for Desegregation Eugene Talmadge, former Georgia Governor, strongly opposed the Civil Rights Movement. During his successful campaign in 1946, he promised to "restore the white primary and to keep blacks in their place in Jim Crow Georgia". E is for Eugene Talmadge Freedom Rides were a series of integrated bus rides throughout the South in 1961 that helped gain national support for the Civil Rights Movement. When the riders arrived in Atlanta, they were greeted by crowds of supporters and even dined with Martin Luther King Jr. F is for Freedom Rides Martin Luther King Jr. studied Gandhi's nonviolent independence movement in India and adapted some of these strategies in the Civil Rights Movement G is for Gandhi Herman Talmadge was selected as governor after his father's death, even though he had not run for office. His election resulted in an increase of white supremacy and stricter segregation laws. H is for Herman Talmadge Ivan Allen Jr. was the mayor of Atlanta from 1962 to 1970. He helped maintain peace and calm in the city during the path to integration while other cities faced recurring violence. I is for Ivan Allen Jr. Jim Crow Laws, or segegration laws, operated in Atlanta until 1963. These laws called for things such as segregated schools, public transportation, and city parks. These laws also made it illegal for blacks and whites to marry each other. J is for Jim Crow Laws The Ku Klux Klan in Atlanta was a group composed of southern whites that violently opposed segregation. During the 1950s, they attacked African Americans protesting against segregated businesses in downtown Atlanta. K is for Ku Klux Klan L is for Love, Law and Liberation Martin Luther King Jr, the most prominent leader of the Civil Rights Movement, was born and raised in Atlanta. He and other leaders of the movement in Atlanta worked to gain equal rights through gradual and peaceful negotiations and protests. M is for Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolence was Martin Luther King Jr.'s approach to the Civil Rights Movement. He did this through peaceful protests such as sit ins, and through negotiations with white leaders. N is for Nonviolence "Our Faces, our Words", was a book written by white Georgian novelist Lillian Smith, who began speaking out against segregation in the 1930s. Her book commended the nonviolent methods being used in the Civil Rights Movement. O is for "Our Faces, our Words" In 1948, Mayor Hartsfield hired Atlanta's first eight African American police officers. While this was progress, these officers could not arrest white suspects and were initially stationed at a local YMCA. P is for Police Officers Also a main goal of the Civil Rights Movement, equal rights meant African Americans would have full civil rights and could not be treated differently than whites. Q is for Equal Rights In September of 1906, white mobs assaulted hundreds of blacks, attacked black owned businesses, and entered streetcars occupied by blacks after alleged assaults of local white women. The riot contributed to increased segregation in the city and to the black suffrage restriction in 1908. R is for Race Riot In 1960, the All-University Student Leadership Group in Atlanta lobbied for the desegregation of city lunch counters by refusing to leave their seats at ten segregated lunch counters and cafeterias in the city. S is for Sit Ins Teach Ins were organized events, such as lectures, films, or other educational methods, used to inform the public about the Civil Rights Movement T is for Teach Ins The United Negro Veterans marched from Ebenezer Baptist Church to Atlanta City Hall in 1945 in a protest against police brutality. This demonstration was a factor in Mayor Hartsfield's decision to hire the first eight African American police officers. U is for United Negro Veterans V is for Voting William Hartsfield was the mayor of Atlanta for six terms. Under his leadership, Atlanta peacfully integrated public schools in 1961, earning it the nickname "A City Too Busy to Hate". W is for William Hartsfield Executive Order 9981 was issued in 1948 by President Truman. It abolished racial segregation in the armed forces. X is for Executive Order Andrew Young was a trusted aide to Martin Luther King Jr, and he helped organize voter registrations and desegregation campaigns. In 1972, he became the first African American to be elected to Congress from Georgia since Reconstruction. Y is for Young The Civil Rights Movement in Atlanta was part of the zenith, or climax, of a nationwide struggle that began many years earlier and included countless lost battles. Z is for Zenith http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimcrow/insidesouth.cgi?state=Georgia
http://www.atlantahighered.org/civilrights/ Sources by Sarah Odom This was a group of black ministers, led by William Holmes Borders, who filed a lawsuit against the city after a white real estate committee designated that select residential areas would become all black in 1959. They were successful, and integration of city buses and trolleys was achieved. In the 1940s, African American organizations began engaging in voter education and registration in order to gain enough power to negotiate with the white leaders.