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Unit 1 APUSH
Transcript of Unit 1 APUSH
1. Plantation Economy: tobacco and rice
2. Need for outside labor source: initially
indentured servants, later slavery
3. Aristocratic atmosphere: cash crops
large plantations over smaller farms.
4. Sparsely populated
5. Religious toleration (although Church of England
6. Need for Expansion: tobacco degraded the land.
First Permanent English Settlement: Jamestown, Virginia
Virginia Company received a charter to look for gold, convert Indians to Christianity, and look for Northwest Passage.
British Empire utilized 3 types of colonies in N. America:
-- Charter Colony: granted to an individual or company, crown got a cut of the proceeds.
-- Proprietary Colony: granted to an individual or group with no strings attached; used to gain control of land with little risk to the Crown.
-- Royal Colony: colonies run by royal officials.
Jamestown was a pretty miserable place in the beginning:
-- war with Indians.
Initial years know as the "Starving Time": 60 of 400 settlers survived.
Captain John Smith was seen as somewhat of a savior: forced the colonists to work to salvage the colony.
Jamestown did not become remotely prosperous until the introduction of tobacco in 1614.
High quality tobacco was grown in the Caribbean on Spanish plantations. Virginia tobacco was lesser quality but also less expensive and fed a demand back in Europe.
It grew relatively well in Virginia and was extremely profitable. If a farmer could afford a servant, he would make 100 - 200 Pounds per year, paying his servant only 2 Pounds for labor.
By 1620, Jamestown shipped 50,000 pounds of tobacco per year. By 1623, it shipped 150,000 pounds per year.
To meet the demand for labor on the tobacco plantations, farmers started importing indentured servants and, late, slaves from Africa.
Headright System: Anyone who could pay the passage of a white indentured servant would be granted 50 acres of land.
Term: 5-7 years in exchange for transatlantic passage.
In the early years of Jamestown, as few as 10% outlived their contracts, taken in by disease (often malaria) and other maladies.
Survival rates improved: by the end of the 17th century, 100,000 indentured servants had been brought into the Virginia and Maryland.
Beginnings of Self-Government:
As Jamestown stabilized (and expanded due to the degradation of land caused by tobacco), thousands of colonists poured in to the colony. As the population grew, the Virginia Company realized it would be difficult to completely control the colony from across the ocean and therefore created a House of Burgesses in 1619.
- 1st colonial parliament in British America.
- Representatives were usually wealthy property owners.
- Became a selling point for the colony: come and be free in Virginia!
-- Established in 1632 by Lord Baltimore as a proprietary colony.
-- Established as a haven for Catholics (and to make money)
-- Because of its history, it passed the Act of Toleration: guarantee freedom of religion to all Christians: everyone else out of luck.
-- Maryland was economically similar to Virginia (tobacco, tobacco, tobacco!), and had similar survival rates in the early years (yea malaria!)
The Carolinas were born because of sugar. England had established several profitable sugar plantations in Barbados in the Caribbean. Because sugar was so profitable, nobody really wanted to waste land growing food. This created a problem.
Problem solved! 1670: Province of Carolina established by George II.
Goal: grow foodstuffs, primarily rice, for Caribbean sugar plantations.
The borders of Carolina were modest!
The ambitious borders of the Carolina Colony upset the Spanish, primarily because they included lots of land claimed by Spain. For protection, colonists sought alliances with Indians who rivaled Indians groups further south who allied with Spain. These raids would produce Indian slaves who were put to work on the rice plantations.
Soon, however, the Indian slaves began dying of malaria and a new source of labor was needed. Carolina imitated the practices of the Barbados sugar plantations and started importing enslaved Africans, who were more expensive, but who were more resistant to malaria.
Carolina also adopted West Indian Slave Codes in 1696: slaves were to be considered property with no rights, no promise of freedom and no protection against abuse from their owners.
Charles Town (Charleston) became the most active sea port in the South.
- Had an aristocratic feel.
- Religious toleration
The Carolina Colony became a center for rice production, as well as indigo, which was used as a dye for clothing.
As Charles Town and the coast of Carolina
became more aristocratic, many poor whites and some religious dissenters from Virginia started moving into the backwoods away from the coast. The friction between this area and the coastal aristocratic elite lead to the creation of a separate colony in 1712: North Carolina ("a veil of humility between two mountains of conceit.")
The presence of the British in Carolina angered the Spanish. A new colony of Georgia was created south of Carolina for the expressed purpose of buffering the profitable Carolina colony from the Spanish in Florida.
Georgia was the last British colony created in what is now the United States. In 1733 it was carved out of the hinterlands south of the Carolinas to protect British colonies further to the north, as well as serve as a haven for debtors.
Initially, Georgia was supposed to be free of slavery as well.
Founder: James Oglethorpe.
Key city: Savannah, also founded in 1733.
1.3 New England
Crash Course in English Religious History:
1517: Martin Luther breaks from the Catholic Church over doctrine: Protestant Reformation.
1530s: Henry VIII breaks from the Catholic Church over, um, personal matters: Church of England.
1536: John Calvin (who, despite his name was French-Swiss) founds Calvinism, Protestant sect, which stresses the idea of "Predestination": "the elect" were chosen by God to have eternal salvation.
People who believed they had been chosen for salvation were to act as "visible saints": be models of piety for the community.
Calvinist ideas arrived in England just as Henry was breaking away from Catholicism. Calvinists wanted to get rid of all elements of Catholicism and "purify" Christianity. These people became known as "Puritans".
One group of Puritans wanted a complete break from the Church of England, impatient as they were with the de-Catholicization of the Anglican Church. These people were known as Separatists.
James I, king of England (and Scotland) and head of the Church of England felt threatened by the Separatists and threatened to throw them out of England. Many took their own steps and left voluntarily.
The Pilgrims were a group of Separatists.
The group that became known as the Pilgrims initially went to Holland. After their kids started becoming Dutch instead of English, they sought other options.
Along with a group of non-Separatist investors, the group secured rights from the Virginia Company to settle within Virginia.
1620 - 120 people, Separatists and non-Separatists set sail for Virginia. Wildly off course, they land off the coast of Massachusetts.
Plymouth Bay is chosen as settlement site:
-- The land around the bay had been cleared by Indians, who were no longer there because they had mostly died of smallpox in recent years.
-- The land was outside the Virginia Company's jurisdiction, so technically they were squatters.
To legitimize themselves (and perhaps to reassure the non-Separatist investors on board), the group created the Mayflower Compact.
Agreement provided for majority rule among settlers, except for servants. It also provided for adult male settlers to make laws and conduct open-discussion town meetings.
The Plymouth Colony existed as an independent colony until 1691 when it merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Massachusetts Bay Colony:
- Founded in 1629 by John Winthrop and other non-Separatist Puritans who felt threatened by anti-Puritan sentiment in England.
- Winthrop and his partners were granted a Royal Charter for the Massachusetts Bay Company to create of charter colony.
- Cambridge Agreement - stock holders of the Company who didn't want to emigrate sold their shares to those who were going to go: Mass. Bay Comp. was to be independent of interests back in England.
Settlement centered around Boston, which had an initial population of 2,000. This quickly increased, as about 15,000 settlers migrated to New England over the next decade.
John Winthrop arrived in 1630, and conceived of the colony as a "City Upon a Hill," speaking to the Puritan idea that the selected needed to act as visible saints for the community. He wanted Boston and other Puritan communities to observe a "Covenant of Grace" which called for a "Social Covenant" between members of Puritan communities that required mutual watchfulness, little toleration of deviance and disorder, and little privacy.
Lead by Winthrop, Mass Bay became the largest and most influential of the New England colonies.
Economy: fishing, shipbuilding, fur trade, lumber, some dairy farming, some wheat, some corn.
Government: open to all free adult males (2/5 of population) belonging to Puritan congregations. Only Puritans - the "visible saints" - could be freemen; only freemen could vote. Women and non-religious men could not vote. Townhall meetings emerged as a staple of democracy. Religious dissenters were punished.
Purpose of government: enforce God's laws (covenant theology). Congregational church was "established". Non-church members were compelled to pay taxes to support the Church.
Cambridge Platform (1648): Established four Puritan colonies--MBC, Plymouth, Connecticut and New Haven.
Dissent to Puritanism: Puritan Rebels
Some of the earliest dissenters to Puritan power in the Mass Bay Colony were Quakers, who flouted the Puritan political authority and were persecuted. Several Quakers were hanged in Boston Common in the 1650s and 1660s.
Anne Hutchinson believed that the "elect" didn't need to obey God's laws: if they were already saved, what was the point of living as a visible saint? This belief was known as "antinomianism".
Hutchinson also held prayer meetings for women in her house, which was a double no-no: only clergy were allowed to hold prayer meetings, and none of them were women.
Hutchinson was brought to trial for heresy in 1638 and banished from the colony. She fled to Rhode Island. Eventually she fled out of reach of the Mass. Bay Col., winding up in New Netherland in present day New York City, where she and her family were massacred by Native Americans.
More serious challenges to the Puritan authority came from within its ranks.
Roger Williams, a separatist, wanted to a total break from the Anglican Church. Moreover, he denied the right of the Puritan Governments to regulate religious behavior within the Mass Bay Colony. Only the Church could regulate religious behavior.
He suggested there should be "a wall of separation" between Church and State.
His other major criticism was that the Plymouth and Mass Bay Col. charters were invalid because they were located on Indian land for which no compensation had been paid.
Banished in 1635, fled to the Narraganset Bay where he found shelter with sympathetic Indians.
He purchased land from the Indians and founded Providence (which would later become Rhode Island). He said any and all were welcome to settle in the area, regardless of religious beliefs.
Decline in Puritanism
Puritanism as the guiding force in Massachusetts civil and religious life began to diminish in the years after the first generation of settlers at Mass. Bay.:
- Influx of non-Puritan population diminished Puritan power; Puritans were often living on far flung farms, outside of Church control (remember, part of the Social Covenant was watching [over] one another).
- The critiques of Williams and Hutchinson began to be more widely accepted.
- To attract members, the Church started to offer "Half-Way Covenant" to the unconverted: their children could then be baptized.
All of this meant that the hold that Puritanism had on New England society began to dissipate to a degree. While religion still had a large role in public life, purity was sacrificed for wider participation. Conservatives began lamenting the decline of morals in society and predicting its eventual doom (these sermons were called "Jeremiads").
The stake in the heart of Puritan dominance of New England was the Salem Witch Trials (1692).
The accusations of witchcraft against
women in Salem, which (get it?)
resulted in 20 women getting executed
weakened the prestige of the clergy in the eyes of many citizens of Mass Bay. That Cotton Mather, a prominent clergyman supported the trials, further alienated much of the populace from strict Puritanism.
The Rest of New England
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
- Founded by Roger Williams in 1636
- Offered total religious freedom, even for Jews, Catholics and Quakers.
- No oaths required for religious belief
- No compulsory church attendance.
- No taxes to support a state church.
- Initially, all men were allowed to vote and participate in town hall meetings.
- Became somewhat of a haven for oddballs and dissenters from all over New England.
- Given a charter from English Parliament in 1644.
- Founded by Boston Puritans led by Rev. Thomas Hooker in May 1636.
- Hooker and John Winthrop had disagreements over who could participate in government. Hooker was an advocate of greater religious toleration for non-Puritans.
- Connecticut began along the Connecticut River with the founding of Hartford in 1637.
- Neighboring colony of New Haven founded in 1638. New Haven Puritans were more in line with the more conservative Mass. Bay Colony.
- 1639: Connecticut drafts the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a written constitution for the colony.
- 1st written constitution in American history
- Established a government based on consent of the people (wealthy people, but people nonetheless)
- Modeled after Massachussett's government.
- 1662: Charles II awards a charter to Connecticut, which absorbs New Haven.
- a number of small settlements focusing on fishing and fur trading were established at the same time as Mass Bay. (The earliest attempt, in 1607, failed). These settlements were absorbed into Mass. Bay colony in 1677. Maine remained part of Massachusetts until 1820.
- First settlement established in 1622.
- Haven for exiles from Mass. Bay.
- Absorbed by Mass. Bay in 1641
- 1679: Charles II removes New Hampshire from Mass. New Hampshire becomes separate royal colony
Slavery Becomes Central to Southern Economic and Social Life
- By late 17th Century, thousands of former indentured servants who had outlived their terms of servitude were becoming frustrated by the political and social structure of Virginia:
- Nearly 100,000 had been brought to Virginia and Maryland in the 17th Century.
- Many servants had been lured by the promise of land upon completion of service.
- As land became more valuable due to the tobacco economy, plantation owners became less willing to give land to former indentured servants as part of the "Freedom Dues."
- Also, heavy taxation by Virginia's governor Sir William Berkeley led many to lose their land.
- Landless men pushed into western Virginia, hoping to squat on Indian land. This led to conflict among the frontiersmen and the Indians.
- Berkeley had developed friendly trading relationships with Indian tribes and the frontiersmen were disappointed that Berkeley seemed to side with the Indians over them.
- To make matters worse, the colony was still predominantly male: few frontiersmen had any hopes of marriage, etc.
Nathaniel Bacon, an aristocrat in western Virginia and member of the House of Burgesses organized a militia of frontiersmen in 1676 and started massacring Indians.
Charles II dispatched 1,000 troops from England to put down the rebellion. Governor Berkeley also sent out a militia and passed some reforms to mollify Bacon's concerns. It was not enough. Bacon's army marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground.
The rebellion did not last much longer: Bacon promptly died from dysentery. 23 of the rebels were hanged. Berkeley himself was removed as Royal Governor by Charles II on the grounds that his policies were leading to discontent in the colony.
There were 2 hugely significant consequences of Bacons' Rebellion:
1) Virginia planters, whether pro- or anti-Bacon, set aside their differences and devised policies that would unify white Virginians against Indians, blacks and, to some extent, England: armed forays into Indian lands; white supremacy as a cornerstone of society; messages to England that the Crown needed to respect the welfare of the colonists.
2) Planters started to see indentured servants as more trouble than they were worth; looked to slavery to fill in the labor gap.
The Slave Trade
Most slaves taken to North and South American originated in Sub-Saharan West Africa. Coastal tribes had trading relationships with the Portuguese going back to the 15th Century. Portuguese traders had been sailing down the African coast, trading firearms for gold and ivory. Increasingly, African tribes also offered slaves in return. The slaves were captures warriors of opposing tribes. Though slavery had been dying out in Europe itself, slaves were put to work in the new colonies in the Caribbean and South America, and eventually, North America.
Most slaves in British North America arrived after 1700. In 1670, there were only 2,000 slaves in all of Virginia. Within 80 years, that number grew to upwards of 50% of the population on Virginia, or greater than100,000. In South Carolina, slaves outnumbered whites 2 to 1.
The increase in the numbers of slaves led colonial governments to create slave codes to control the population. These slave codes were similar to those of Barbados and other Caribbean sugar colonies:
- slaves and their children were property for life.
- illegal to teach slaves to read and write
- conversion to Christianity, while encouraged, was not grounds for freedom.
- physical abuse of slaves, including murder, was not illegal.
Especially on larger plantations, a unique slave culture developed, a mixture of American and African folkways:
- Language: Gullah: slave dialect blending English and several African languages developed along the Carolina coast (especially islands off South Carolina).
- Music: instruments such as the banjo evolved based on African instruments -> eventually, blues.
- Religion: combination of Christianity and African rituals: freedom in the afterlife: Book of Exodus very symbolic.
- On large plantations, slaves lived in relatively larger communities, developing strong kinship ties.
- Marriage and family: even if not recognized legally or by most slave owners, family life developed when possible. -> This family life if going to lower the need for British North American to import new slaves: only 399,000 slaves were imported to what is not the U.S. Only 5% of the total.
Slaves quite understandably were not thrilled with the institution of slavery. Resistance was sometimes passive: work slowdowns, breaking or stealing farm tools, perhaps poisoning their masters. On occasion, there was armed rebellion:
Stono Rebellion: September 1739
- Slaves in South Carolina rose up, stole weapons, killed their masters, and headed south, hoping to make it to Spanish Florida.
- South Carolinian militia stopped them, arrested the leaders and hanged them.
- The Stono Rebellion led to harsher slaves codes, especially in the lower south (South Carolina, Georgia).
Pequot Wars/King Philip's War/New England Confederation/Dominion of New England!!
As New England expanded, collisions between Puritans and Indians increased.
- April 1637: after settlers from Connecticut settled on lands belonging to the Pequot, a force of Pequots attacked a settlement at Weatherfield, Connecticut. Settlers, and some Indian allies, retaliated, setting fire to a Pequot village, killing 400 people.
- In response to the Pequot Wars, colonial leaders in New England decided that collective defense was necessary, especially since the English government was currently fighting the English Civil War and had less energy and time for its colonial possessions:
New England Confederation (1643):
- Purpose: collective defense against Indians, French and Dutch.
- First milestone towards colonial unity.
- Also helped in other matters: runaway servants and criminals.
King Philip's War
- Matacomet (a.k.a. King Philip) led an alliance of
Indian tribes in attacks along the Massachusetts and Connecticut frontier in 1675. The attacks continued into the next year, as King Philip's forces raided towns as close to 20 miles from Boston.
- Colonial forces organized by the New England Confederation fought back, killing around 4,000 Indians (the Puritans themselves lost about 2,000.
The Confederation's victory over Metacomet, as well as the trouble down in Virginia through Bacon's Rebellion, led the English King to clamp down on colonial autonomy:
- Virginia: colonial governor's sent from England increasingly managed the colony as an imperial enterprise, sometimes at the expense of colonial interests.
- Charles II revoked the Mass Bay Colony's Charter in 1684 and created the Dominion of New England in 1686.
- Mercantilism: the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country. Colonies were to export more than they imported. Trade imbalance would benefit England.
- Navigation Acts: colonial businesses were not allowed to trade directly with non-British colonies or other countries. All trade had to be run through England.
Great Awakening: 1730s-1740s
- First mass social movement in American History
- At its core, it was a a challenge to Church authority.
- characterized by distrust of established clergy and emotional, evangelical preaching.
As it spread out of New England in the 1740s and into the 1750s, it led to:
- Greater tolerance of religious dissent; split in denominations: Baptists and Methodists increasingly attract new members.
- Revitalized American religion after a period of decline.
- Encouraged new wave of missionary work among Indians.
- Founding of "new light" colleges: Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers, Princeton to train new clergy.
- Laid the foundation for anti-intellectualism as part of American character.
French and Indian War:
As British Settlement expanded westward, they started coming up against French interests west of the Appalachians.
Wary of this expansion, France constructed a series
of forts along the Appalachians, stretching from Lake
The British, seeing this, reacted in 1754 by sending a
detachment of militia (led by a guy named George
Washington, into western Pennsylvania. Washington
picked a fight with the French in the area, and was defeated.
As the crisis escalated, delegates from 7 colonies met in Albany, New York to discuss common defense.
Result: Albany Plan for Union
- Proposed "Grand Council" with representatives of each colony that would work with a crown official ("President General") to organize common defense, and levy taxes to pay for that defense.
The British ignored the Albany Plan for Union and sent its own army instead. This touched off the Seven Years' War (or French and Indian War), which lasted until 1763, when Great Britain defeated France.
Results of F-I War:
- Treaty of Paris (1763): Great Britain becomes dominant power in North America.
- Friction between the colonists and the
- American soldiers and militias fighting alongside British treated as unequals.
- Some American companies continued to trade with the French West Indies and Spanish colonies during the war.
- American westward expansion into newly "British" lands accelerated. This expansion in part contributed to Pontiac's Rebellion. Pontiac, an Ottawa chief who sided with the French during the war, attacked British possessions in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region.
- Although the rebellion was subdued by the British, King George III signed an edict prohibiting colonial expansion west of the Appalachians (in land acquired through the Treaty of Paris).
- This was to buy time to organize defenses; the colonists saw this as betrayal; they had fought alongside the British and saw this as being deprived of the fruits of victory.
- Later on, George III would levy heavy taxes on the colonies to pay for the war (but that's another story).
Royal colonies: 9 colonies were royal colonies with governors appointed by the King
Proprietary Colonies: 3 colonies (Maryland, Pennsylvania and Delaware) led by proprietors who chose the governor.
Charter Colonies: CT and RI elected own governors under self-governing charters.
Bicameral Legislatures were common:
Upper House of Council: appointed by Crown of Proprietor
Lower House or Assembly: elected by people (property owners)
1.1 Pre-Columbian Review Review
- 15,000-20,000 years ago: initial migration from Siberia to Alaska across Beringia, a landbridge at what is now the Bering Straight.
- 9000 BCE: populations spread throughout North and South America. Initial populations were small (15-20 people) and were hunter/gatherers.
- 8000 - 1500 BCE:
- populations continue to spread.
- greater use of tools.
- establishment of agriculture: ~ 5000 BCE.
- populations start to increase.
- 1500 BCE - 1500 CE:
- increased use and development of agriculture ----> bigger populations.
- larger cities/settlements created: trading centers.
- development of larger, more complex political units:
- Olmecs (1200s BCE - 400s BCE)
- Mayans (1800s BCE - 1100s CE)
- Aztecs (1300s CE - 1500s CE)
- Inkas (1200s CE - 1570s CE)
Why Central/South America and when North America?
Early Americans obviously traversed North America to arrive in Central and South America in the centuries following migration across Beringia. Why did such development occur in those (later) places rather than in North America.
Answer = Corn (maize).
- ~ 5000 BCE: development of maize in Central America.
- 1200 BCE: corn spreads into modern day New Mexico.
- Early (North) American societies were decentralized and varied greatly in language and culture.
- They tended to be smaller than civilizations found in Central and South America, although Cahokia (near modern day St Louis) and the Anasazi of the southwest did feature larger settlements.
First European Contact
Motives for Exploration:
- Competition for power
- Economics (mercantilism)
- Renaissance thought
1492: Columbus crashes into Hispaniola, thinks he's in China.
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas: grants Spain claim to "heathen lands" in the "New World". Portugal gets Brazil and the rest of the world.
1565: Spain establishes St. Augustine, Florida: first permanent European settlement in North America.
Other European powers followed suit:
- potential riches of new lands (gold, etc.)
- potential passage to Asia (nobody was sure exactly how big the continents were; maybe we can sail across them?).
- Potential to Christianize Native Americans.
APPARTY: Starving Time
: John Smith, militant British leader of the VA colony in 1609
: Published in 1624 about events that took place in the VA colony in 1609…published many years after actual events occurred.
How can this affect the account?
Colonists faced significant food shortages, lacked survival skills, and faced continual threat from natives.
Smith employed military-style discipline to get colonists to work
- Well educated Britons who were literate
- Possibly those who might pay him for exciting tales of his adventures or pay him for insights on future investments in the colonies.
Spice up the story of what really happened and make himself sound particularly heroic to stamp out his place in history
The Main Idea of the Document
There were extreme challenges faced by the first colonists in Virginia.
It took strong leadership for the colony to survive.
More support from England would be helpful for future colonial success.
Yeah, so what:
Source gives a sense of the very real dangers faced by early colonists.
Source provides detail of the threat by Native American and shortages of food.
Shows opportunities evident for strong leaders to emerge and lay groundwork for early government in the American colonies (force was necessary).