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Transcript of Age-Level Characteristics
Play activities are an important part of young children's development and should be encouraged.
This age group generally shows preferences of gender of play peers and for pair play over group play.
Awareness of gender rolls and gender typing is evident. Preschoolers are extremely active.
Because of an inclination toward bursts of activity, kindergarteners need frequent rest periods.
Preschoolers' large muscle are more developed than those that control fingers and hands, leading to some clumsiness.
Young children have difficulty focusing on small objects, leading to imperfect hand-eye coordination.
Although young bodies are flexible, the bones protecting the brain are still soft.
Gender differences in physical development and motor proficiency are usually not noticeable until kindergarten and are fairly small in magnitude. Kindergarteners tend to express their emotions freely and openly; anger outbursts are frequent when the student is tired, hungry, or exposed to too much adult interference.
Jealousy is very common between students, as this age group has much attention for the teacher and actively seeks affection. The teacher-student ratio is a leading reason for this. By age four many children develop a theory of mind-the awareness of one's own mental processes and that others may think differently.
Kindergarteners are quite skilled in language and most of them like to talk, especially in front of a group.
Many do not accurately assess their competence for particular tasks. They do not differentiate between effort and ability as factors that affect performance.
Competence is encouraged by interaction, interest, opportunities, urging, limits, admiration, and signs of affection. Authoritative parents-have confidence in their children, establish limits and explain reasons for restrictions, are warm and affectionate to their children. Their children tend to be self-motivated and stand up for what they believe in, yet are able to work productively with others.
Authoritarian parents-make demands and wield power without considering the child's point of view, a lack of warmth leads to resentment and insecurity within the child. As a result, the child does as she/he is told out of fear, not a desire to earn approval or affection.
Permissive parents-are disorganized, inconsistent, and lack confidence, and their children are likely to imitate the same behaviors. Demanding less of their children, allowing them to make their own decisions, and not requiring them to act in mature ways produces children who avoid confrontations, much less assertive and intellectually skilled.
Rejecting-neglecting parents-do not makes demands of children, respond to their emotional needs, structure a home environment, or support the child's goals. This results in children who are least competent of the four types. Diana Baumrind's four types of child rearing: Physical Characteristics Primary grade children are still extremely active. Because they are frequently required to participate in sedentary pursuits, energy is often released through nervous habits.
Teachers need to give students instructional breaks, reducing cognitive interference from preceding instruction and increases attention to subsequent instruction-cognitive immaturity hypothesis.
They become fatigued easily as a result of physical and mental exertion.
Large-muscle control is still superior to fine motor coordination.
Many students may have difficulty focusing on small print or objects.
Children tend to be extreme in their physical activities, having gained better physical control and a heightened sense of confidence leads to an underestimated level of danger in daring activities.
Bone growth is not yet complete. Social Characteristics Children become somewhat more selective in their choice of friends and are likely to have a more or less permanent best friend.
Primary grade children often like organized games in small groups, but they may be overly concerned with rules or get carried away by team spirit.
Quarrels are still frequent. Wards are used more often than physical aggression, however many boys may indulge in punching, wrestling, and shoving. Emotional Characteristics Students are sensitive to criticism and ridicule and may have difficulty adjusting to failure.
Most primary grade children are eager to please the teacher.
Children are becoming sensitive to the feelings of others. Cognitive Characteristics Children understand that there are different ways to know things and that some ways are better than others.
Primary grade children begin to understand that learning and recall are caused by particular cognitive processes that they can control.
Because of continuing neurological development and limited experience with formal learning tasks, primary grade children do not learn as effectively as older children do.
Talking aloud to oneself reaches a peak between the ages of six and seven and then rapidly declines. Physical Characteristics Both boys and girls become leaner and stronger.
Obesity can become a problem for some children of this age group.
Although small in magnitude, gender differences in motor skill performance are apparent.
This is a period of relative calm and predictability in physical development. Social Characteristics The peer group becomes powerful and begins to replace adults as the major source of behavior standards and recognition of achievement.
Friendships become more selective and gender-based.
Play continues to make numerous contributions to children's development. Emotional Characteristics Disruptive family relationships, social rejection, and school failure may lead to delinquent behavior.
During this period, children develop a more global, integrated, and complex self image. Concepts of the self-image/self-portrait Self-description-the way in which people describe themselves to others
Self-esteem-the overall or global evaluation people make of themselves
Self-concept-the evaluative judgements people make of themselves in specific domains, such as academic performance, social interactions, athletic performance, and physical appearance. Cognitive Characteristics The elementary grade child can think logically, although such thinking is constrained and inconsistent.
On tasks that call for simple memory skills, elementary grade children often perform about as well as adolescents or adults, however, on tasks that require more complex memory skills, their performance is more limited. Physical Characteristics Pubertal development is evident in practically all girls and in many boys.
Concern and curiosity about sex are about universal, especially among girls.
Physical growth tends to be both rapid and uneven. Early Physical Growth Growth-spurt-in girls begins around the age eleven, reaches a peak around age fourteen, and generally completed by fifteen. Boys begin around age thirteen, peaks around age seventeen, and is completed around age eighteen.
Early-maturing boys vs. Late-maturing boys.
Early-maturing girls vs. Late maturing girls. Social Characteristics The desire to conform reaches a peak.
The development of interpersonal reasoning leads to greater understanding of the feelings of others.
interpersonal reasoning-the ability to understand the relationship between motives and behavior among a group of people. Stage 0: egocentric level (about ages 4-6)
Stage 1: social information role taking (about ages 6-8)
Stage 2: self-reflective role taking (about ages 8-10)
Stage 3: multiple role taking (about ages 10-12)
Stage 4: social and conventional system taking (about ages 12-15) Stages of Interpersonal Reasoning Described by Selman Emotional Characteristics The view of early adolescence as a period of "storm and stress" appears to be an exaggeration.
As a result of continued influence of egocentric thought, middle school students are typically self-conscious and self-centered. Cognitive Characteristics Because of the psychological demands of early adolescence, middle school students need a classroom environment that is open, supportive, and intellectually stimulating.
Self-efficacy becomes an important influence and social behavior.
Self-efficacy-how capable people beieve they are at dealing with one type of task or another. Physical Characteristics Most students reach physical maturity and virtually all attain puberty.
Many adolescents become sexually active, although the long-term trend is down.
Factors related to initiation of sexual activity vary by gender and race.
Although the birthrate for unmarried adolescents has fallen in recent years, it remains unacceptably high, as is the rate of sexually transmitted diseases. Social Characteristics Parents and other adults are likely to influence long-range plans; peers are likely to influence immediate status.
Girls seem to experience greater anxiety about friendships than boys do.
Many high school students are employed after school Emotional Characteristics Many psychiatric disorders either appear or become prominent during adolescence. Anorexia nervosa-an eating disorder characterized by a preoccupation with body weight and food, behavior directed toward losing weight, pecular patterns of handling food, intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted perception of one's body.
Bulimia nervosa-an eating disorder in which binge eating, followed by self-induced vomiting, is the predominant behavior.
Schizophrenia- a thinking disorder characterized by illogical and unrealistic thinking, delusions, and hallucinations.
Depression Types of Psychiatric Disorders Depression is the most common emotional disorder in teens.
Type range from: depressed mood, depressed syndrome, and clinical depression.
Common symptoms of depression include feelings of worthlessness and lack of control over one's life, crying spells, and suicidal thoughts, threats, and attempts.
If depression becomes very sever, suicide may be contemplated. Depression in Adolescence/Teens Cognitive Characteristics High school students become increasingly capable of engaging in formal thought, but they may not use this capability.
Between the ages of twelve and sixteen, political thinking becomes more abstract, liberal, and knowledgeable. An increase in the ability to deal with such abstractions as freedom of speech, equal justice under law, and the concept of community.
A decline in authoritarian views.
An increase in the ability to imagine the consequences of current actions.
An increase in political knowledge. Adelson's Conclusions Can help reduce egocentrism
Develop Interpersonal Reasoning
Readily used to support the development of higher-level cognitive skills such as inquiry, critical thinking, and problem solving
Adventure Learning-programs that allow students to interact electronically with experts and explore around the world
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Snowman, Jack, R. R. McCown, and Robert F. Biehler. Psychology Applied to Teaching. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2012. Print.