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Brian Patterson

on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of WWII

I. The War Economy
A. Part of the Great Depression is caused by WW1
1. Hoover’s memoir “…Great Depression starts 1918”
2. Massive debts: no way to pay

B. Germany and Treaty of Versailles 1918
C. New Deal doesn’t pull us out of GD WWII does
1. 1940-1945 GDP doubles
2. 1945: full employment

3. Transition to war economy seamless
a. Factories operating below production
b. Idol capacity: unemployment
c. Not shifting from consumer economy (WWI)
d. 800,000 planes / 80,000 ships

D. War: Big Business and the Military Industrial Complex
a. WWI (1917-1918) = $20 Billion [$334 Billion today]
b. WWII (1941-1945) = $296 Billion [4,104 Billion today]
c. Vietnam (1959-1975) = $111 Billion [738 Billion today]
d. Korea (1950-1953) = $30 Billion ($341 Billion today]
e. War of Terror (2001-Present)

E. Great Depression creates global desire for a “real leader”

1. Communist Party: Lenin / Stalin
a. “Stalin” = Man of “Steel”

b. The Great Purge
(1) 8-13 million people
(2) Totalitarian government

2. Nazi Party: Hitler
a. “Jews are at fault for our economy”
b. Third Reich = Third Empire

(1) 1,000 years
(2) Lebensraum (More living space)
(a) Austria
(b) Czechoslovakia
(c) Munich (1938) symbol of appeasement

3. Promises to make Germany “great” again
c. Systemic discrimination 1930’s

(1) Call to lose individuality in mass

(2) Gives German people a sense of being part of
"something greater"
3. Fascism: Mussolini (New Roman Empire) / Franco (Spain)
4. US/Britain: FDR and Churchill
5. Japan
a. Smaller than CA; 30% inhabitable
b. Manchuria
6. Spain
a. Francisco Franco
b. Civil war = 500,000 dead

c. Results in Spain turning to fascist state

II. The United States Pre-War (1939-1941)
A. Isolationism
B. Remember lessons from WWI

C. George Washington warns in farewell address to avoid entanglements
D. 1935 Neutrality Act

1. Can’t sell arms to countries at war
2. FDR doesn’t support it: Congress passes anyway

E. “America First” clubs
1. Focus on America and turn a blind eye to the world
2. Charles Lindbergh
3. 1 million members

III. War Starts in Europe
A. Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact (1939)
B. Germany attacks Poland

1. Britain and France declare war
2. German "blitzkrieg"
a. Germany wants vindication from France
b. Surrender in same rail car Germany signed in WWI

C. FDR Reacts
1. Cash and Carry Policy
a. Buyers pay cash and transport their own arms

2. Peace time draft
3. Election of 1940
a. FDR wins big on isolationist platform (3rd Term)
b. U.S. will be the “Arsenal of democracy”

4. Lend-Lease Act
a. FDR: “Neighbor’s house on fire, lend a garden hose”
b. Leases or lends arms to France and Britain to fight Germany
IV. United States Enters the War
A. Japan is expanding too rapidly
1. Signs the Tripartite Pact: Germany, Italy, Japan form Axis Powers
2. FDR orders oil embargo (blocks shipments of petroleum to Japan)

3. Japan responds by attacking Pear Harbor Dec. 7th, 1941
B. Isolationist sentiment dissolves
C. Germany declares war on U.S. (Dec. 11th, 1941)

2. Freedom of worship
3. Freedom from want
4. Freedom from fear
D. FDR outlines what U.S. is fighting for: Four Freedoms
1. Freedom of speech
c. Europe and Asia rack up $50 billion tab
d. 1941 Germany attacks Russia: FDR extends Lend-Lease to

V. War in the Pacific (Marines)
A. Initial focus on Europe

1. Leaves Japan unchecked
2. Japan has momentum and is overconfident

B. Racially charged
1. U.S. View of Japan

a. Treacherous and devious (Pearl Harbor)
b. “Japs” in media

2. Japan’s view of U.S.
a. Sellout merchants
b. Cowards who will give up after being attacked

3. War without mercy
a. Ears (mailed home)
b. Gold teeth

c. Take no prisoners
(1) Reprisals
(2) Rumors of dishonorable “tricks”

d. Hawaii customs checks for bones
e. U.S. Marine sends FDR bone letter opener

4. Popular culture
a. “Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips”
b. "A good Jap is a dead Jap"

c. California prints “Jap hunting licenses”
d. Life Magazine: “How to tell the difference
between a Jap and the Chinese”

5. Japanese Internment (1942) Executive Order 9066
a. Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA)

b. 130,000 in U.S. => 110,000 interned
c. Most are American citizens

d. You can’t “Americanize” them
e. 1988 formal apology and $20k in reparations for
anyone still living who was interned

C. Communication
1. Japan had cracked most US codes and were
intercepting supplies

2. ~400 Navajo code talkers are trained by Marines
a. Japan can’t decipher Navajo
b. Tide of war starts to change

D. Naval Battles
1. Battle of Midway (1942)
a. U.S. intercepts message that Japan is going to attack

b. U.S. ambushes Japan
(1) Sinks 4 aircraft carriers
(2) Kills many of Japan’s best pilots

E. Amphibious Invasions
1. Iwo Jima 1945

a. Key island because of proximity to Japan
b. 8 square miles
c. 30% casualty rate

"A viper is nonetheless a viper wherever the egg is hatched.... So, a Japanese American born of Japanese parents, nurtured upon Japanese traditions, living in a transplanted Japanese atmosphere... Thus, while it might cause injustice to a few to treat them all as potential enemies, I cannot escape the conclusion... that such treatment... should be accorded to each and all of them while we are at war with their race."[43]
VI. War in Europe (Army)
A. “Germany first” strategy
B. Fireside chats turn in to geography lessons

C. 1942
1. Germany war machine has taken control

2. German U-Boats sink 400 U.S. Ships
3. Russia bears the brunt of the war

a. Stalin: “yes, no, second front…”
b. Churchill, FDR start with North Africa

D. The “Stalin dilemma”
1. Stopping Germany is worth it

2. FDR’s negotiation with Stalin is heavily criticized
3. The BIG Three: Stalin, Churchill, FDR

E. U.S. Forces
1. 16 million (7 million Army, 5 million Navy, 2 million Marines)
2. G.I. = Government Issue

3. One pound steel helmet/cotton and wool uniforms = wet gear
4. Draft brings microcosm of America

5. African Americans
a. Discrimination isn’t as profound away from home
b. Tuskegee Airmen (Red Tails)
c. Philip Randolph

6. Women
a. Rosie the Riveter
b. Women’s Auxiliary Corps (WAC or WAAC)

F. North Africa
1. General Dwight Eisenhower (leads North African campaign)
a. Bonus Army
b. Organizer, planner, and well-liked
2. Allied forces push North through Italy
a. 1943 Italy surrenders
(1) Mussolini executed 1945

G. D DAY (Normandy, France) June 6, 1944
1. Operation Overlord

2. Largest amphibious invasion in world history
a. Over 3 million men
b. 7,000 Naval vessels and 12,000 planes
c. Turns tide in war

3. Hitler’s blunder
a. Calais, France
b. Paranoia breaks chain of command
4. Fighting in France lasts 2 months

H. Yalta Conference (1945)
1. European front drawing to a close
2. Big Three meet to determine post war territory
3. Russia promised massive amounts of
territory in exchange for agreement to enter war against Japan
a. Parts of China
b. Eastern Europe (Poland)
c. Eastern Germany
d. Agrees to enter war in Pacific 90 days post VE

4. Groundwork for the United Nations

I. FDR dies April 1945
1. Harry Truman
2. Met FDR <10 times / limited experience
J. May 8, 1945 VE Day
1. Hitler commits suicide
2. Potsdam Conference (July-August 1945)
a. Truman left to negotiate unaware of FDR strategy
b. Russia sits on what they had already occupied

c. Truman learns that Russia had agreement with FDR to
join war in Pacific 90 days after victory in Europe.
VII. Holocaust

A. 1933 Hitler comes to power
1. Believes that racial purity makes for stronger nations
2. 1935 Jews had lost German citizenship and right
to marry non-Jewish persons
3. 1938 Jews are forced to wear stars or face arrest
B. Refugees flee Europe
1. U.S. accept 100,000 Jewish refugees
a. Scientists, doctors, authors
b. Many Americans want door to U.S. closed
St. Louis

C. The "Final Solution"
1. Policy of genocide
2. Ghettos
3. Concentration camps
a. 1942- camps start extermination
b. Auschwitz
4. Kristallnacht November 11, 1938
a. "Night of Broken Glass"
11 Million People are Killed
VIII. Weapons
Flame Thrower
Soviet Anti-Tank Dogs
Incendiary Bombs
Atomic Bombs
A. Manhattan Project
1. Little Boy
a. August 6th, 1945

2. Fat Man
b. Uranium
c. Hiroshima, Japan
a. August 9, 1945
b. Plutonium
c. Nagasaki, Japan
d. >50,000 immediate deaths
d. > 40,000 immediate
Full transcript