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Body Modification

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Sarah Noble

on 5 April 2011

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Transcript of Body Modification

Foot Binding Scarification Lip Plates Body Modification in Other Cultures Skin Bleaching Body Piercings Plastic Surgery Tattoos Practiced in African tribes by just women.
Bigger the plate:
- more beautiful
- stronger
- more important/higher social status Stretched to basketball hoop size
Two or four lower teeth must be taken out to fit lip plate
Constant drooling and trouble drinking /eating Neck Elongation Known as the "Pa-Dong" people
Refers to the wearing of brass rings
Consider long necks to be beautiful/rings are beautiful body adornment
Brass rings indicate wealth
First nine rings are placed as early as 5 Prevalent in Thai culture.

"Many women in Thailand dream of whiter skin. They think white skin means not only beauty, but also success – professional and romantic." Migrant workers and laborers were dark skinned and considered poor.
Fair skin was seen as upper-class.
Commonly used whitening agents. Practice of making permanent scars on the body.
Tradition in Africa
Right of passage
Social status
Increases sexual attraction

Geometric patterns
Face, back, belly, legs
Pronounced scars
Tattoo ink used by some tribes
Clay, ashes of all sorts, acidic juice, toothpaste to irritate the wound
Wounds purposely irritated for more pronounced scars
Skin Removal:
Cut and peel skin off
Burning of the skin The Truth:
The Pa-Dong women do not even have elongated necks! The heavy brass coils which they fit around their necks press down on the rib cage and cause the ribs to grow downwards.

Practice of foot binding was seen in China.
"Golden lotuses"
Mark of wealth and a well-born woman
Feet were only 3" long
Could not walk,run or dance
Process started between 4 and 7 and lasted 2 years
Life-long pain Nose Plugs Apatani tribal women in India.
Used as a tool to make women of the tribe unattractive.
As elderly women pass away so does the tradition. Body Modification Why Do People Get Piercings? Desire to beautify one’s body
Create a certain image
The desire to be different
To start a fashion trend
Achieving a sexier look
To receive extra attention Sexual Reasoning Often used for the self and partner’s extra-stimulation.
Done on body parts directly involved in sex play:
Prince Albert People 35 or older, most commonly receive these piercings.
Genital piercing for women is perfectly safe.
Could cause functioning problems in men and scar tissue
People pierce for professions:
Sport dancers may have naval piercings
Exotic dancers may have intimate piercings Kinds of Piercings Ear Most common is the ear-lobe
Healing time: 1-2 weeks
Some choose to stretch their lobes
Cartilage piercings
Healing time: 2 months or more
Naval Most popular piercing
vertical, double, triple piercings
Healing time: 4 - 5 months
Tongue and Lips Healing time: 1-2 months
Difficulties with eating and speaking
Expect to have trouble speaking
Nipple Historically done by men; seen as a token of strength and manhood
Used for sexual preception today
Little to no complications with breastfeeding
Healing time: 1 - 3 months
Genitals Women:
Looking for sexual enhancement
Clitoris, skin fold, vulva lips

Foreskin (vertical/horizontal)
Prince Albert (ringlet through urethra)

Healing time: No Time - Month

Other Piercings Nose
Lower back
Eyebrow Complications with Piercings Complications can be prevalent
Unique blood circulation may cause bleeding
Inflammtion, swelling, allergic reaction may occur Tongue piercings may have serious complications:
breathing interruption
oral cavity infections
toxic shock, sepsis
speech abnormalities
tooth decay

What is Plastic Surgery? Two types of surgery:
Cosmetic (Aesthetic)
correct defects on the face or body
considered necessary for normal function Cosmetic (Aesthetic):
alter part of the body someone is not satisfied with
done to help person look better /increase self-esteem
unnecessary for normal function

liposuction, breast augmentation, tummy tucks Examples:
traumatic injuries,defects, aftermath of disease treatment Why? 75% physical benefits such as better appearance, more active, healthier
45% social benefits such as being accepted and attractive

Improve SELF ESTEEM and APPEARANCE Technology has recently provided more surgical choices.
2/3 or more people would have work done if money was no object
Increase in post-pregnancy surgery (Mommy makeovers)
Anti-aging procedures becoming more popular
Teens This age group chooses plastic surgery to:
Fit in with the crowd
Look acceptable to friends and peers

Most Common Procedures:
Nose reshaping
Ear surgery
Acne/scar treatment
Breast reduction Quick Statistics 13.1 million -> Cosmetic
5% increase from 2009
5.3 million -> Reconstructive
2% increase from 2009
Total expenditure (2010): $10,135,689,068 ASPS American Society of Plastic Surgeons
According to ASPS,the overall number of procedures has increased 446% since the first collection in 1997. Top 5 Cosmetic (2010) Top 5 Reconstructive (2010) Breast augmentation (held #1 spot since 2006)
Nose reshaping
Eyelid surgery
Tummy tuck

Facelifts have experienced significant growth in 2010. Tumor removal
Laceration repair
Scar revision
Hand surgery
Breast reconstruction (8% increase since 2009) Age Breakdown 20-29 : 747,000 (up 2%)
30-39 : 2.4 million (up 4%)
40-54 : 6 million (up 6%), amount for majority of cosmetic procedures
55+ : 3.3 million (up 4%) Gender Females:
91% of all cosmetic procedures Top 5 Male Procedures:
Nose reshaping
Eyelid surgery
Breast reduction
Hair transplantation Origins of Plastic Surgery 600 B.C. India 1700's in India Greek Term "plastikos" World Wars and Plastic Surgery Injuries:
shattered jaws, blown of noses and lips, skull wounds Life-saving vs optional continued advancement and communication between doctors "Mommy Makeovers" multiple surgeries extensive operations and recovery reasons and implications democratized "My Beautiful Mommy" Tattoos Around the World Tattooing is practiced by driving ink beneath the skin with sharp tools
Common in almost all cultures through the world History The oldest documented tattoos belong to Otzi the Iceman
“Inserting pigment under the skin’s surface” originated before Otzi
The word “tatou” originated in Polynesian islands America First electric tattoo machine was invented by Samuel O’Reilly, based on a modern doorbell
Caused new age of popularity in tattooing
Normally practiced by immigrants
“Freak shows” showed men or women who were heavily tattooed
Become more socially acceptable
Used to make a statement or speak out about their particular subculture
Movie stars and sports figures have taken some of the taboo out of tattooing

Egypt Primarily found on women
Many were uncovered from the tombs of ancient pyramids over 2,000 years old
Custom spread to Northern European tribes known as "Picts" - painted people
Europe England had the highest growing tattooed population, in part of the tradition of tattooing the British Navy
British ports had at least one professional tattoo artist
France Seamen, laborers and convicts were tattooed, never upper-class
The Catholic Church forbid tattooing because it disfigured “that which was fashioned in God’s image”
Japan (5,000 B.C.) Marks believed to have religious or magical significance
Used to mark criminals in the Middle ages
Marked with symbols to show where their crimes were committed
Ostracized by families and denied all participation in the community events after they were tattooed
Ban was put on painted, theater and certain dress so many Japanese turned to colorful tattooed “body suits”
Maori of New Zealand Famous for tattooing work mostly on the face and butt
Many museums have the actual tattooing on the skin
Preserve the heads of their tattooed chiefs as honored possessions Africa Since darker skinned they developed a technique of “scarification” - “tattooing for the blind”
Feels like Braille lettering
Made by lifting the skin, cutting it and then the wound is rubbed with ashes and special sand to create scars Gang Tattoos Tattooing criminals dates back to the Romans and Japanese (17th century)
Nazi’s used numbers on the arms of Jews during the holocaust
Tattooing associated with the criminal class
Often used to show gang membership and record personal history (skills, accomplishments, convictions)
Many are coded meanings and wearing false or unearned tattoos is punishable
Common Symbols 3 dots on hand: the trinity
Rose on Chest: Russian Mafia
Cat: theif
Pyramid: dangerous
Dagger: sex offender
Hearts: passive homosexual
Spider: racism/doing time
Snakes: high-ranking gang member
SS: Nazi insignia Statistics In Rochester 14% of the population have a tattoo
36% of people between age 18-29 have 1 tattoo
84% don’t regret it
Tattoos and tattoo related keywords are the most searched words on the internet beating out the adult industry, it is also the most misspelled
20% of women have one on their lower back
Removing one may cost 3x as much as getting one
Females report having significantly more body modifications as men Risks Infections such as HIV and hepatitis related to reused needles
1853 First reported case in which syphilis was transmitted by tattooing
Allergic reaction to permanent tattoo ink
Granulomas- bumps that form to encapsulate foreign substances such as tattoo ink particles
MRI studies may cause burning and swelling of tattoos due to metal components in ink
Other Options henna
fake washable tattoos Possible Risks Scarring
Nerve injury
Tissue death
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