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History of Social Work/Welfare
Transcript of History of Social Work/Welfare
I know... its almost over
What? This isn't new?
History will be kind to me, for I intend to write it.
U.S. Social Welfare History
U.S. Social Welfare History continued...
Early Colonization to 1930
1930 through the 1960s
Civil Rights in the 60s to Present
Monday, February 9th, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 37
Early European Approaches to Social Welfare:
Jane Addams Wins Nobel Peace Prize!
The Development of the Social Work Profession
History of Social Work/Welfare
England After Feudalism's Demise
The English Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601
The Speenhamland System (1795)
The English Poor Law Reforms of 1834
Early Colonization to the Mid-1800s
The Civil War Era
The 1870s to 1900
The Progressive Period: 1900 to 1930
The Great Depression and the 1930s
War and Wealth: The 1940s
Peace and Complacency: The 1950s
The 1960s and the War on Poverty
Early Development of Social Work Education
Social Work During the Great Depression
Social Work in the 1950s
Formation of the National Association of Social Workers
Social Work in the 1960s to the Early 1980s
Social Work Today
-People gained mobility and independence but lost much of the safety and security the feudal system provided.
-Political leaders began to consider how to help the poor.
-Legislation was passed to gain social control and encourage people to work.
-First piece of legislation to establish coherent, consistent public support for needy people through local taxes and to establish categories of eligible recipients.
became so expensive, government leaders created policy which supplemented the income of poor people so that everyone would have what was deemed the minimum income necessary for survival.
Reduced all outdoor relief and brought back workhouses as the only place where able-bodied people could receive benefits.
-Attitudes toward poor became hostile and resentful
-People blamed the poor for their poverty
- benefits should be lower than what the poorest working people could earn.
Resulting ideological trends:
Institutional view of social welfare (it's society's ongoing responsibility to provide its citizens with needed benefits and resources)
Residency requirement for assistance were established
By the 1830s, people were beginning to view poverty as a "social problem" a "potential source of crime, social unrest, and long-term dependence"
The Civil War had a huge impact on the social structure of the U.S. It affirmed federal responsibility over states' rights and laid the groundwork for the U.S. to become a welfare state.
Three broad trends:
- brought with it a wide range of social problems
- tremendous growth of urban populations
- immigrants brought with them their own problems. poor/ill
Characterized by a progressive movement "when educated and socially conscious men and women sought to create structures that would advance social justice in the United States." Emphasized a government that would assume active responsibility for the welfare of its citizens.
Major events from this era:
for single mothers
General trend- increasing reliance on the federal government to control and provide social services.
Global impact- obliterated the idea that individuals control their own destiny.
- a vigorous plan that created a wide range of social programs and significantly extended federal control in social welfare matters.
Three Pronged Approach:
short-term work relief
the expansion of employment
Incomes rose significantly
Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944 (G.I. Bill)
Gave veterans opportunities for "education and training, home and business loans, and employment services."
Criticisms of social welfare policy at the time focused on restricting eligibility for benefits and making it difficult to continue getting them.
Optimism and complacency from the 50s weakened and poverty remained a large problem.
Three dynamics in the 60s shaped the nation's perspective on poverty:
1- Large pockets of poverty characterized various regions of the country, and attention was focused on what could be done to ameliorate this poverty.
2- The risk of poverty for people of color was significantly greater than that for whites.
3- Public assistance rolls were escalating even as unemployment decreased.
Civil Rights in the 1960s
The most important piece of civil rights legislation since the Civil War
Attempted to decrease discrimination
A Return to Conservatism in the 1970s
As the 1960s ended, so did the War on Poverty.
The public was sick of seemingly endless spending on social programs with questionable results.
Conservative Extremes in the 80s and Early 90s
-Conservative social welfare policies
-Slashed social welfare spending
Continued Reagan's frugal social welfare policies which:
-increased number of people living in poverty
-increased racial tension
-increased numbers of oppressed and vulnerable populations
Welfare Reform in the Clinton Era
1994 Crime Bill
The Conservatism of George W. Bush
The Great Recession
The Presidency of Barack Obama
Compassionate Conservatism- The philosophy that although government should not interfere directly with people's lives, it should help people to help themselves.
-emphasis on homeland security
-trimmed federal government and gave more power to the states
-shifted service provision from the public to the private sector
- An economic downturn where businesses make less money, unemployment mounts, people's access to usable capital plummets, and their capacity to make purchases shrinks.
Stimulus Plan- has been referred to as "disguised social welfare" because it included a wide range of social programs.
Health Care Reform
1898- New York Charity Organization Society
1919- AASSW (American Association of Schools of Social Work)
Social Security Act- switched many aspects of service provision from the private to the public sector.
Massive increase in social work jobs with tasks unrelated to providing therapy (before this, social work was almost graduate degrees only with a focus on casework with a theoretical foundation in psychotherapy)
BSW vs MSW/AASSW
The relative affluence of the 1950s once again encouraged social workers to turn to psychotherapy and casework.
BSW programs were still not being accredited.
Formed in 1955 with the intent to provide a unified force to move the profession ahead and pursue broad goals far beyond what any more limited specialty organization might accomplish.
Focus on social change vs
CSWE offered accreditation to BSW programs in 1974
1984- CSWE affirmed that the foundation for both undergraduate and graduate education levels should include the
knowledge, skills, and values
inherent in generalist practice.
BSW- entry level into the profession
MSW- advanced practice and specialization
Core competencies and practice behaviors