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Single Replacement Reactions

By: Jenna, Emmy, Jen, and Lauryn!!
by

Emmy M

on 22 October 2012

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Transcript of Single Replacement Reactions

Single Replacement A single replacement chemical reaction occurs when one reactant (what you start with) switches for one ion (a charged particle) of another reactant.

Example: A single replacement formula usually looks like this:

AB + C B + AC
The element "C" is more reactive than element "B" so that's why it replaces "B" and forms a different compound. Here's an analogy to help you remember: So we know that the single replacement formula looks like this:

AB + C B + AC

RIGHT? Lets pretend A is a girl (Lulu) , B is a boy (Max) and C is a man (John).
So lets just say that the boy is trying to win this girls heart..... and it isn't going to well for him. All of a sudden manly John (C) comes around and Lulu falls for him. Lulu and John become a couple and poor Max is left all by himself! AB + C B + AC Here are some examples

Cu + AgNO3 ---> Ag + Cu(NO3)2
Fe + Cu(NO3)2 ---> Fe(NO3)2 + Cu
Zn + HCl ---> ZnCl2 + H2
How to read it: Zinc combines with hydrochloric acid and zinc replaces the hydrogen. In a single displacement reaction the more reactive element takes the place of the less reactive element. A new compound is formed and an element is released. The reactivity of metals (greatest to least):
Lithium
Barium
Potassium
Calcium
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminum
Zinc
Chromium Iron
Nickel
Tin
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Mercury
Silver
Platinum
Gold In a single displacement reaction an element is released and a new compound is formed. aka: Substitution Reaction, Single Displacement and Oxidation Reduction reactions How Can you tell if it is a Single Displacement Reaction? This type of reaction ALWAYS occurs between a compound and an element. They only occur when one element is more reactive than the other The metals are arranged in order of decreasing reactivity. Halogens are arranged in the same way. You can tell the reactivity by the number of valence electrons. Elements with less electrons are more reactive than those with larger amounts of valence electrons, because they are more willing to give up their electrons. Real life example: When aluminum and iron oxide go through a single displacement reaction they form thermite. When it is heated, it is used to join railroad lines together. Let's see how well you paid attention! Question #1:
A single displacement reaction typically takes place between which of the following?
a. covalent compound and an ionic compound
b. an element and an ionic compound
c. an element and a covalent compound
d. a gas and a metal
e. a transition metal and a noble gas Question 2:
Which of the following equations represents a single displacement reaction between a metal and a metal?
a) AB + C AC + B
b) BX+ C CBX
c) A + B AB
d) AB + CD AD + BC Question #1:
A single displacement reaction typically takes place between a(n) _____________ and a(n) ______________
a. covalent compound and an ionic compound
b. an element and an ionic compound
c. an element and a covalent compound
d. a gas and a metal
e. a transition metal and a noble gas Question 2:
Which of the following equations represents a single displacement reaction between two metals?
a) AB + C AC + B
b) BX+ C CBX
c) A + B AB
d) AB + CD AD + BC Question #3:
Metals are arranged in order of ____________ reactivity, and halogens are arranged in order of ______________ reactivity.
a) increasing; decreasing
b) decreasing: increasing
c) decreasing; decreasing
d) increasing: increasing
e) no pattern is evident Question #3:
Metals are arranged in order of ____________ reactivity, and halogens are arranged in order of ______________ reactivity.
a) increasing; decreasing
b) decreasing: increasing
c) decreasing; decreasing
d) increasing: increasing
e) no pattern is evident Question #4:
From which country were single displacement reactions said to have come from?
a) Gaul
b) Greece
c) Japan
d) China
e) England Let's do an experiment! Discussion/ Q & A Sources * show demo powerpoint Guch, Ian. "Mr. Guch Explains -- A Guch-a-riffic Chemistry Tutorial!" Mr. Guch Explains -- A Guch-a-riffic Chemistry Tutorial! N.p., 2009. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://misterguch.brinkster.net/explains2.html>.
Petras, Tony. "Single Replacement Reactions." Single Replacement Reactions. N.p., 2000. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.sartep.com/chem/tutorials/tut.cfm?tutorial=Single Replacement Reactions>.
Helminstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Single Displacement Reaction." About.com Chemistry. N.p., 2012. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. <http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemicalreactions/a/single-displacement-reaction.htm>.
Bishop, Mark. "Zn_CuSO4_flash." Zn_CuSO4_flash. N.p., 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. <http://preparatorychemistry.com/Zn_CuSO4_flash.htm>. Fun
FACTS 3 Types of Single Replacement Reactions 1 2 3 4 Between a metal and another metal Between hydrogen and a metal "CHEMTUTOR REACTIONS." CHEMTUTOR REACTIONS. Chemtutor LLC., 1997- 2011. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://www.chemtutor.com/react.htm>. Did you know... That single replacement reactions were discovered around 475 BC in Ancient China? They began to use this reaction to produce copper. One way they accomplished this was using iron to replace copper from a solution of copper sulfate. "ChemTeacher." ChemTeacher. Creative Commons, 2007. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://chemteacher.chemeddl.org/services/chemteacher/index.php?option=com_content>. Riddel, Phil, and Jessica Seminara. "What Are Displacement Reactions." WiseGeek. Conjecture, 19 Oct. 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-displacement-reactions.htm>. Between a halogen and another halogen Zumdahl, Steven S., Susan L. Zumdahl, and Donald J. DeCoste. World of Chemistry. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, 2007. Print. The end! CK-12. "Types of Reactions." CK-12. FlexBook Platform, 2002-2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ck12.org/book/Chemistry---Second-Edition-%2528CA-DTI3%2529/r2/section/13.3/Chemical-Reactions-%253A%253Aof%253A%253A-Chemistry---Second-Edition-%2528CA-DTI3%2529/>. In this type of reaction, the metal replaces the other metal (cation) in the other compound. The equation looks like this:

A + BC B + AC The difference between this type of reaction and a reaction between two metals is the fact that the compound on the reactant side is always an acid (Pretty much hydrogen + an anion). In this reaction, the metal replaces hydrogen in the acid compound. This reaction looks like this:

A + 2HX AX2 +H2 In this reaction the elemental reactant replaces the halogen ( aka the anion) in the compound. The equation for this reaction looks like this:

A + BC C + BA Question #4:
From which country were single displacement reactions said to have come from?
a) Gaul
b) Greece
c) Japan
d) China
e) England Question #5:
Single Displacement Reactions are a contrast to which type of reaction?
a) Combustion
d) Oxidation Reduction
c) Double Replacement
d) Synthesis
e) Chemical Decomposition Question #5:
Single Displacement Reactions are a contrast to which type of reaction?
a) Combustion
d) Oxidation Reduction
c) Double Replacement
d) Synthesis
e) Chemical Decomposition Question #6:
Which of the following is another name for a single replacement reaction?
a) substitution reaction
b) combination reaction
c) formation reaction
d) metathesis reaction
e) physical change Question #6:
Which of the following is another name for a single replacement reaction?
a) substitution reaction
b) combination reaction
c) formation reaction
d) metathesis reaction
e) physical change Question #7:
A + BC C + BA
The equation above represents a reaction between which two types of elements?
a) a metal and a halogen
b) a metal and a metal
c) a metal and a nonmetal
d) a halogen and a halogen
e) a nonmetal and a nonmetal Question #7:
A + BC C + BA
The equation above represents a reaction between which two types of elements?
a) a metal and a halogen
b) a metal and a metal
c) a metal and a nonmetal
d) a halogen and a halogen
e) a nonmetal and a nonmetal http://www.google.com/imgres?q=single+replacement+reaction&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&client=firefox-a&sa=N&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1227&bih=804&tbm=isch&tbnid=AgaL_6Rr0U793M:&imgrefurl=http://utahscience.oremjr.alpine.k12.ut.us/sciber99/8th/matter/sciber/chemtype.htm&docid=7JHEkidKIL0u9M&imgurl=http://utahscience.oremjr.alpine.k12.ut.us/sciber99/8th/matter/images/1REPLACE.GIF&w=364&h=288&ei=YlaEUO7dK4au9ATnpYHgCw&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=3&sig=116053672346311437791&page=1&tbnh=135&tbnw=170&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:70&tx=100&ty=66 Q: Why did the solution turn blue during the experiment? A: The blue indicates the presence of ions. They dissolve in the solution turning it blue. Cook, Phillip. "Galvanic Cells." Welcome to CK-12 Foundation. FlexBook Platform, 2007- 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ck12.org/user:pcook/concept/Galvanic-Cells/>. Any other Questions? Question #8:
Which statement describes a substitution reaction?
a) two or more simple compounds combine to form a more complicated one
b) an exothermic reaction forming water and carbon dioxide
c) the opposite of synthesis
d) a reaction with two new compounds as products.
e) an elements trades places with another element in the compound. Question #8:
Which statement describes a substitution reaction?
a) two or more simple compounds combine to form a more complicated one
b) an exothermic reaction forming water and carbon dioxide
c) the opposite of synthesis
d) a reaction with two new compounds as products.
e) an element trades places with another element in the compound. Question #9
What is reactivity most commonly based on?
a) atomic number
b) ionization energy
c) electronegativity
d) all of the above
e) none of the above Question #9
What is reactivity most commonly based on?
a) atomic number
b) ionization energy
c) electronegativity
d) all of the above
e) none of the above Question #10
Critical Thinking: Can single displacement reactions be reversed? Explain. Question #10
Can single displacement reactions be reversed? Explain.
Main Idea-
NO / In order for the reaction to occur a less reactive element must be replaced by a more reactive element.
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