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Transcript of Culture
Cross-Cultural Research: Mccrae and Costa's Five Factor Model
What is cross-cultural research?
Five Factor Model:
-neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
Positive and negative valence
-Are these traits universal?
Five Factor Model Results
Out of 50 culture groups studied...
Only 6 of them did not replicate the five factors
Cross-Cultural Differences in Mean FFM Scores
Openness to experience:
-Austrians score high
-Japanese score relatively low
-European Americans > East Asians and Africans
-Norwegians score relatively high
-Malaysians score high
Spanish score high
“Culture is the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others”
Professor Hofstede is a dutch social psychologist, he is known for his extensive work on cross cultural psychology.
Hofstede's 5 Cultural Dimensions
- The extent in which the unequality of power is accepted among a society
High PD - hierarchical society
Low PD - society views themselves as equal
- Society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. The extent in which a culture has been brought up to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable with unstructured situations
High UA - "there can only be one truth and we have it"
Low UA - More tolerant of opinions
Cultural Dimensions Continued...
Individualism vs. Collectivism
- Looking out for yourself and your immediate family versus being brought up in groups and protecting extended family in exchange for loyalty.
Masculinity vs. Femininity
- Refers to the extent a society sticks to the emotional gender roles
Bennett, M. J. (2013). Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication : Paradigms, Principles, & Practice: Selected Readings. Boston: Intercultural Press, A Nicholas Brealey Pub. Company. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/cultural-diversity
Carlo, Gustavo, Knight, George P, Roesch, Scott C, Opal, Deanna & Davis, Alexandra. (2014). Personality Across Cultures: A Critical Analysis of Big Five Research and Current Directions. In F. T. L. Leong, L. Comas-Diaz, G. C. Nagayama Hall, V. C. McLoyd & J. E. Trimble (Eds.),
APA handbook of multicultural psychology, Vol. 1: Theory and research
. (pp. 285-298). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14189-015
Dimensions of National Cultures. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.geerthofstede.nl/dimensions-of-national-cultures
Levine, C., Markus, H., Boylan, J., Park, J., Kitayama, S.,...Miyamoto, Y. (2015) Expression of anger and ill health in two cultures: An examination of inflammation and cardiovascular risk.
26(2), 211-220. http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com/sp-3.14.0b/ovidweb.cgi?&S=MCNNFPCHNEDDABJINCLKPFFBLILCAA00&Complete+Reference=S.sh.40%7c4%7c1
Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; MacManus, Deirdre; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon. (2015) Anger in the UK Armed Forces: Strong association with mental health, childhood antisocial behavior, and combat role.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease.
203(1), 15-22. http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com/sp-3.14.0b/ovidweb.cgi?&S=MCNNFPCHNEDDABJINCLKPFFBLILCAA00&Link+Set=S.sh.42%7c1%7csl_10
Kwan, Virginia S. Y., & Herrmann, Sarah D. (2015). The Interplay between culture and personality. In M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, M. L. Cooper, & R. J. Larsen (Eds.),
APA handbook of personality and social psychology, Volume 4: Personality processes and individual differences
. (pp. 553-574). http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14343-025
Culture and Personality Research
Social Axioms: Five Pancultural Beliefs
-reward for application
Universal structure of beliefs impact behaviour
Can research done in North America
be applied to other cultures?
Correlation of anger & ill health
- Anger in the armed forces
- 9885 service person
- Self-administered questionnaire
- "Anger is a frequent component of mental disorders"
- The beliefs, customs, arts, etc.,
of a particular society, group, place,
Michael H. Bond
Long term oriented societies tend to have virtues aimed towards future rewards. Ex/ Saving, persistence etc.
Short-term oriented societies encourage values related to past and present such as national pride and respect for tradition.
The 6th Dimension
Added later on in a book called A Sixth Dimension
Indulgence vs. Restraint
- Whether society is open to gratification of needs or represses it by strict social norms
Gap between men and women's values
What is behaviour?
Milton Bennett Scale
Also known as the DMIS, developmental model of intercultural sensitivity which describes the way people can react to cultural differences
First three stages (ethnocentric)
Denial of difference- belief that their culture is "better"
Defense against difference- belief that their culture should be the only one in existence
Minimization of difference-Individuals recognize other cultures but still believe their culture is superior
Last Three (ethno-relative)
Acceptance of difference- Individuals start to recognize that their culture is equal
Adaptation to difference-Individuals recognize and start to understand different cultures
Integration of difference- The individuals experience is expanded and involves the understanding of culture and realizes the world around them
What is Cultural Diversity?
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society
Burrhus Frederic Skinner
John B Watson
Overt vs Covert Behaviour
Covert and Overt Behaviour
Saul Sych, Jessica Barker, Elizabeth Martinson, Stephanie Myles and Tado Thorburn