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About Kenneth E. Boulding
Transcript of About Kenneth E. Boulding
Graduated from Oxford University
Hierarchy of systems
Elise M. Boulding (1920 – 2010)
1910 - 1993
Presented by: Soroosh Nalchigar
Level 1. Static structures
E.g. A map of the earth
Level 2. Clockworks
Simple dynamic system with predetermined motions and a stable equilibrium.
E.g. the solar system
Level 3. Cybernetic Systems
The system can move to a given equilibrium within limits by monitoring the differences between observed and ideal values. E.g. the thermostat
Level 4. Self-maintaining structures
Maintain and reproduce themselves
E.g. the cell, rivers.
Level 5. Genetic-societal
Division of labor among cells,
phenomenon of "blueprinted" growth
Level 6. Animal
Increased mobility, self-awareness, and
specialized information receptors
E.g. An individual non-human animal
Level 7. Human
E.g. An individual human being separate
from the surrounding social system
Level 8. Social system
Individuals having interrelated roles,
value system, and symbolization of
meaning, emotion, and images
E.g. Human organization
Level 9. Transcendental
Greater complexity than social systems,
Boulding published some thirty books and hundreds of articles.
World War II
Converted to a historic peace church
US citizenship in 1948
Faculty member of the University of Michigan ( 1949-1967)
American Economic Association
Society for General Systems Research
American Association for the Advancement of Science.
For Boulding, economics and sociology were not social sciences
A scientific understanding of
the ecodynamics of the
"Adequate theoretical models extend up to about the fourth level, and not much beyond."