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Acids, Bases, and Salts

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McKenzie Sterner

on 14 June 2010

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Transcript of Acids, Bases, and Salts

Acids Properties Household Acids Types of Acids Hydrochloric Acid Bases Properties Basics of Acids Household Bases Strengths of Acids and Bases Basics Strength and Concentration Phosphoric acid Sulfuric Acid Nitric Acid Basics of Bases
When told the word acid, many things might be thought.
A few examples include a sour taste and a burnt hole caused by an acid spill. Although, not all acids can be described this way, some can be. Acids contain hydrogen. When acid dissolves in water, some of the hydrogen is released from the hydrogen ions. Therefore, an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions in a solution. acids are found in many foods gastric juice in your stomach car batteries household cleaners flashlight batteries vinegar aspirin fertilizers explosives eyewash solutions carbonated drinks citrus fruits tomatoes certain vegetables The most widely used chemical is sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid is often called battery acid because it is used in automobile storage batteries. However, most sulfuric acid used is used in fertilizer. Sulfuric acid is also used as a dehydrating agent. This structure can remove water from other materials. When sulfuric acid touches human flesh, the dehydration action it causes instigates burns. Sulfuric acid is also used to make clothing, dies, and other synthetic materials. Another acid important to industry worldwide is phosphoric acid. Eighty percent of phosphoric acid is used to produce fertilizers. A type of phosphoric acid, dilute phosphoric acid, is used in soft drinks. It has a sour, yet pleasant taste. Phosphoric acid is also used to make phosphates, which is sometimes added to detergents to make its cleaning power stronger. However, phosphates cause pollution in lakes and streams. Nitric acid is usually used in making explosives. It is also used to make fertilizers. Concentrated nitric acid is a colorless liquid. When this certain acid is exposed to light, the acid gradually changes to a yellow color. This occurs because the nitric acid decomposes into the brownish gas of nitrogen dioxide. When nitric acid comes in contact with human skin, it can cause serious burns. It can even cause burns if inhaled or even if the vapor encounters skin. Hydrogen chloride is a colorless gas. When it is dissolved into water, hydrochloric acid forms. Hydrogen chloride can harm human tissue. Hydrochloric acid is used in industry to clean surfaces of materials. This is commonly called muriatic acid. Great amounts of this acid are used in the steel industry for pickling. Acids are electrolytes Acids are sour Acids are corrosive Acids produce a change in color when with indicators Acids are present
in many fruits. Some acids react strongly to metals.
The acids eat at the metal and a gas is produced. Acids are good
conductors
of electricity. - an organic
compound that changes the
color in an
acid or base. A base is a substance that produces hydrixide ions. They are shown by "OH negative" in a solution. Hydroxide ions are always negative. Whereas hydrogen ions in an acidic solution are always positive. For example, alcohol produces positive ions, therefore alcohol is not a base. The differemce in charges are one of the many differences between acids and bases. soaps ammonia, a colorless gas fertilizers milk household cleaning agents Bases are crystalline solids In a solution they’re slippery Bases taste bitter Bases, like Acids are corrosive Bases are electrolytes Bases also react with indicators producing a change in color The strength of an acid or base depends on how completely a compound is pulled apart to form ions when dissolved in water. Strong acids - acids that ionize almost completely in a solution Weak acids - acids that only partly ionize in a solution pH... Random Vocab Dehydrating agent - a substance that can remove water from materials Pickling - a process in which oxides and other impurities are removed from metal surfaces by dipping the metals in hydrolic acid Random Vocab Strong Base Weak Base - will dissociate complety in a solution - will produce few ions Strength is often confused with concentration. Words like dilute and concentrated are used to discribe the concentration of a solution. Strong acids and bases can have dilute concentration because they do not refer to one another. ...of A SOLUTION If you own a pool or a tropical fish
then you know that the pH of the
water must be controled. pH - a measure of concentration and hydronium ions in a solution As the picture shows solutions under
7 are acidic, and solutions higher then
7 are basic (or Caustic). A solution at exactly 7
is nuetral. Water is nuetral ...of Blood The pH of blood can not be allowed to change drastically. The pH of blood is affected little by foods. Buffers, compounds in blood, enable small amounts of acids or bases to be absorbed without harmful effects. Buffers help keep your blood closes to a nearly constant pH of 7.4 Acid Rain Unpolluted rain usually has a pH value of 5.6 Slightly acidic - Any rain lower than 5.6 is considered acid rain If the rain is 4.6 it is 10 times more acidic then regular rain Acid rain Plankton are the first organisms
to suffer because of acid rain. Plankton - Aquatic plants and animals that form the base of the food chain for small fish As plankton die, the fish that feed on them begin to feel the affects. Alsothe soil near the polluted area becomes more acidic, and nutrients and metals disolve away. This does not allow for proper plant growth. These effects are now being noticed in certain forest areas Salts Many substances that you use every day are salts. For example, the most common salt is Sodium Chloride- table salt. Most salts are made of a metal and a nonmetal other then oxygen, or metal and a polyatomic ion. Basics Uses of Salts food preparation manufacure of chemical manufacture of paint manufacture of rubber tires fertilizers manufacture of explosives manufacture of soap manufacture of glass detergents dry cells Yeah!!!! The lesson is over enjoy the worksheet! Mwa ha ha ha! Hydronium ion - the ion that makes a solution acidic -a compound formed when the negative
ions from an acid combine with the positive
ions of a base Indicators
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