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High Tunnels in the Food System w/o policy

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Sonia Heckler

on 11 September 2017

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Transcript of High Tunnels in the Food System w/o policy

The Food System:
The Perspective of the Small Farmer

National
Action
Science
Technology
Finance
Global
Local
Specialization
Centralization
Concentration
A linear system expedited by technology...
Efficiency
Convenience
Credits
My Committee
Farmers
References
Stephanie McAfee
Doug Boyle
Kerri Jean Ormerod
Peter Weisberg
Custom Gardens: Ray and Virginia Johnson
Desert Farming Initiative: Ray Saliga and Jennifer Ott
Lattin Farms: Rick Lattin
Snyder Farms: Jim Snyder
River School: Tom Stille and Kait Crowley
Veggie for Kids: Staci Emm and Judy Halterman
They are hit hard by
volatile food prices
policies promoting
large-scale commodity crops
Small scale farmers generally lack access to technologies and resources because they lack the financing.
Opaque System
Placelessness of Food
"Permanent Global Summertime"
Food production is still local.
Food consumption is local.
Small to mid-sized farms have two choices:
The Farm Bill
The general public has lost knowledge about food.
Machinery
Chemical
Biotechnology
Financialization
Mergers and Acquisitions
Global Supply Chain
Branding
1860's
US Department of Agriculture
Homestead Act
Morrill Land Grant College Act
1910's
Federal Trade Commission
1920's
Packers and Stockyards Act
Futures Trading Act
Grain Futures Act
1930's
The Food and Drug Administration
Agriculture Adjustment Act (Considered first Farm Bill)
Commodity Exchange Act
Commodity Credit Corporation
1940's
Committee for Economic Develoment
Marshall Plan
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
1960's
Food Stamp Act
1970's
Special Supplement Food Program for Women, Children and Infants
1990's
World Trade Organization
North American Free Trade Agreement
Freedom to Farm Act
2000's
Senior Farmers Market Nutrition Program
Food Safety Modernization Act
Producers
Consumers
Processors
Wholesale
Where do the small and
mid-sized farmers fit?
System Driver
Small and mid-sized farmers need finance, science and technology to compete with the agro-transnational corporations.
What do high tunnels do for farmers?
The State
The food system functions
within the global economy
making it subject to...
Capitalism
Profit-driven Business
Globalization
In this environment,
the focus of the
food system is on...
Small and mid-sized farmers
are left out of the system...
They are an important part of
the rural economy
and local food movement...
Technology can help small
and mid-sized farmers too...
Farmers are forced
to jump on the
technology treadmill...
Retail
The food systems response to globalization has been...
Globally small-midsize farmers
have been hit hardest.
Greenhouses
Fertilizers
Pesticides
Low tunnels
Drip Irrigation
High tunnels
Custom Gardens
Driscoll's, Spain
Italy
Driscoll's, Morocco
Canada
Technology and finance are clearly two necessary resources for farmers today.
High Tunnel Use Nationally
Driscoll's Strawberry Operations, California
A close up of their operation
Custom Gardens, Silver Springs, Nevada
River School and Patagonia
Lattin farms
River School
Snyder Farms
Why farmers invest
in high tunnels?
Advantages
Local Farming
Opportunity to bring back local farms,
if farmers can survive..
Local farmers are:
More of a closed loop system
Invested in the local community in the long term
Providing fresh produce to fill niche markets
More resilient
More focused on sustainability and transparancy
Willing to share their knowledge
Versatile
So what's all the fuss about high tunnels?
Season Extension
Other reasons:
Higher Production
Diversify types of crops grown
Mitigate Nevada's harsh climate
Helped increase farms economic viability
Wanted access to new markets
Northern Nevada farmers are growing...
radishes
turnips
beets
various green varieties
bok choy
arugula
cucumbers
peppers
eggplant
tomatoes
spinach
chard
asparagus
beans
broccoli
cabbage
carrots
garlic
herbs
onion
peas
potatoes
sweet potatoes
ginger
turmeric
raspberries
blackberries
Pretty good for the high desert!
"You talk to any small businessman they will tell you that the small business is being absolutely regulated out of business. You have to have a certain size in order to be able to afford to comply with the regulatory burden."
Rick Lattin
Wind protection
Season extension
Pest protection
Climate modification
Other reasons:
Grow year around
Solar radiation protection
Increased humidity
Keeping snow off of crops
Cooling crops using shade cloth
Increased crop variety
Increased crop quality
Increased profitability
Maintenance costs
Disadvantages
Cost
Wind damage
More labor intensive
Other reasons:
Timing when to open/close or add/remove cover
Higher insect pressure
Upkeep and maintenance
Managing heat in the summer
More inefficient at a large scale
Can not grow sprawling crops:
Cantaloupe and Squash
Economics
Increased yields to sell
Able to sell in winter
Sell for a longer period of time
Better quality crop to sell
3 Farmers: Yes
2 Farmers: No
4 Farmers: Low
1 Farmers: High (due to labor)
High Yield
Large Farms
Commodity Crops
Constant Production
Economies of Scale
Short Term Profit
Science is the foundation of social and economic
progress. This progress is inevitable and positive.
Continuously increasing output and
efficiency for the benefit of everyone.
Productivism
Modernest Worldview
These viewpoints are the main drivers of technological advancement...
Based on the values of...
(Global Shift)
Transnational corporations use...
And creates an environment...
Chase, L., Grubinger, V. 2014: Food, Farms and Community: Exploring the Food Systems. University Press. New England.
Dicken, P. 2015: Global Shift: Mapping the Contours of the World Economy. The Guilford Press. New York.
Guptill, A., D. Copelton, B. Lucal. 2013: Food and Society: Principles and Paradoxes. Polity Press. Cambridge.
Hauter, W., 2012: Foodopoly: The Battle Over the Future of Food and Farming in America. The New Press. New York.
Hesterman, O. 2011: Fair Food: Growing A Healthy Sustainable Food System. Public Affairs. New York.
Neff, R. 2015: Introduction to the U.S. Food System. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco. Roberts, P. 2008: The End of Food. Houghton Mifflin. Boston.
Weis, T. 2007: The Global Food Economy: The Battle for the Future of Farming. Fernwood Publishing. Halfax.
Google Images, Google Maps, NRCS
Crop Insurance
Price Loss Coverage OR Agricultural Risk Coverage
USDA Rural Development programs
Beginning Farmers and Ranchers Development Program
Farmers Market and Local Food Promotion Program
Value Added Product Market Development Grants
Specialty Crop Block Grant Program
Organic Cost Share Program
Programs for Small and Mid-sized Farmers
Grand Total: $294 million
Desert Farming Initiative
Veggie for Kids
Federally funded school garden program addressing food access
"I think it’s important for people and kids to know where their food comes from. It doesn't come from Safeway."
Mrs. Emm, Veggie for Kids
KNOW your farmer.
So what about high tunnels...
Do farmers
recommend high tunnels?
YES!
(And High Tunnels)
?
Which leads to...
Structural Overproduction
https://www.driscolls.com
For more information on my research:
heckler.sonia.blogs.unr.edu
if they have access to it.
Get bigger
Get smaller and fill a niche market
Relatively inexpensive
Simple
CHANGE policy.
Full transcript