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Transcript of Thesis presentation
Can bullying predict social anxiety with negative interpretation bias as a mediator?
Retrospective Bullying Questionnaire
Scrambled sentences task (STT)
Ambiguous situations task
The third largest mental health care problem
‘a persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others’
Implication and Values
Retrospective Bullying questionnaire
Psychological symptoms and distress:
Scrambled sentences task
Ambiguous Situations Task
Simple regression analysis
1. bullying victimization --> social anxiety
2. bullying victimization --> interpretation bias
3. interpretation bias --> social anxiety
Multiple regression analysis
4. bullying victimization + interpretation bias
--> social anxiety
5. Test partial or full mediation
interpretation bias --> social anxiety
With controlling bullying victimization
There are two objectives in total:
1, to examine if bullying victimization will predict social anxiety;
2, to examine if the interpretation bias will act as mediator of the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety.
50 college students (Age: 18-25)
25 Males, 25 Females
social media platform, posters and participation pool
1, bullying victimization will predict social anxiety in adulthood;
2, the interpretation bias will acts as partial mediator of the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety.
To raise awareness of the profound impact of childhood bullying experience
To affirm the the value of cognitive therapy <-- alleviate interepretation bias
To examine whether different types of bullying have different effect
Indirect aggression V.S direct aggression
Impact of bullying victimization
Increased risk of poor health, wealth, and s
(Worlk, D, et al. 2013)
(Social Anxiety Institution, 2013)
Social anxiety symptoms <--> History of child maltreatment, especially the emotional type of bullying
(Ifflnad et al., 2012)
(Amir, Foa & Coles, 1998, Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985 & Canterbury et al., 2004).
Negative interpretation bias <--> Social anxiety
‘the tendency to draw negative inferences about ambiguous social events’
(Vassilopoulos & Banerjee, 2012)
Relationship between victimization and non-clinical psychotic experiences is only present for self- reported victimization but not peer-reported victimization status
<-- the pre-existing individual’s interpretation bias caused by psychosis vulnerability.
(Camodeca & Goossens, 2005)
(Gromann et al., 2013)
Victims from peer bullying, who are found to be less capable in processing social information than other children in the class, have higher tendency to interpret ambiguous situations as hostile
Schafer et al., 2004
44 questions, mostly multiple-choice
6 types of victimization:
2 physical, 2 verbal, 2 relational
good test-retest reliability
with r =.88 for elemetary school victimization
with r =.87 for middle/ high school victimization
A self- report of subjects' symptoms and psychopathologic features on 9 subscales:
paranoid, ideation, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, psychoticism, phobic anxiety, anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive and general symptoms
(Cameron et al., 2003)
Social Anxiety/ Social Phobia:
Anxiety and phobic anxiety scores are significantly higher in subjects with social phobia than in those with simple phobia
Wenzlaff &Bates (1998)
Unscramble sentences from a scrambled phrase
Positive valence (“Usually people do like me”)
Negative valence (“People do not like me”)
A cognitive load: a 6 digit number
Mathews and Mackintosh (2000)
Presenting a series of ambiguous social stories, each ending in a word fragment
Physcial, Verbal, Relational
Ho Yuet Han
Amir, N., Foa, E. B. & Coles, M. E. (1998). Negative interpretation bias in social phobia.
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36
Boulton, M. J. (2013) Associations between adults' recalled childhood bullying victimization, current social anxiety, coping, and self-blame: evidence for moderation and indirect effects.
Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 26 (3)
, 270 – 292. (cannot find the full version)
Camodeca, M. and Goossens, F. A. (2005), Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46
, 186–197. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00347.x
Canterbury, R., Golden, A. M., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doosst, H.N., Moradi, A. & Yule, W. (2004). Anxiety and judgments about emotional events in children and adolescents.
Personality and Individual Differences, 36
Fund, A. (2012). Intervention for aggressive victims of school bullying in Hong Kong: A longitudinal mixed-methods study.
Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 53(4)
, 360-367. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00953.x
Gromann, P. M., Goossens, F. A., Olthof, T., Pronk, J., & Krabbendam, L. (2013). Self-perception but not peer reputation of bullying victimization is associated with non-clinical psychotic experiences in adolescents.
Psychological Medicine, 43(4)
, 781-787. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329171200178X
Iffland, B., Sansen, L. M., Catani, C. & Neuner, F. (2012). Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey.
BMC Psychiatry, 12(49)
. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528417/
Nilsson, D. K., Gustafsson, P. E. & Svedin, C.G. (2012). Lifetime polytraumatization in adolescence and being a victim of bullying.
J Nerv Ment Dis, 200 (11)
, 954-961. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23124179
Salmon, G., James, A., & Smith, D. M. (1998). Bullying in schools: Self reported anxiety, depression, and self esteem in secondary school children.
British Medical Journal, 317(7163)
, 924-925. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/204017501?accountid=14548
Sesar, K., Barisic, M., Pandza, M.& Dodaj, A. (2012). The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence.
Acta Med Acad, 41 (2)
Smokowski, P. R., & Kopasz, K. (2005). Bullying in School: An Overview of Types, Effects, Family Characteristics, and Intervention Strategies.
Children & Schools, 27(2)
Vassilopoulos, S. P. & Banerjee, R. (2012). Social anxiety and content specificity of interpretation and judgemental bias in children.
Infant and Child Development, 21(3)
Social Anxiety Institute (2013). DSM-5 Definition of Social Anxiety Disorder. Retrieved from https://socialanxietyinstitute.org/dsm-definition-social-anxiety-disorder
Worlk, D., Copeland, W. E., Angold, A., Costello, E.J. (2013). Impact of Bullying in Childhood on Adult Health, Wealth, Crime and Social Outcomes.
Psychological Science, 24 (10)
, 1958-1970. Retrieved from http://pss.sagepub.com/content/24/10/1958.long