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Photography an Intro to Basics
Transcript of Photography an Intro to Basics
or in other words
"The art of making images that
look good and provoke thought" ~PHOTOGRAPHY~ how do you know which camera you should shoot with? there are two types of ways to capture an image and both have their pros and cons FILM DIGITAL FIRST
Basics What's the best way to capture a great photo? what would you recommend? How do i get a good shot that's not digital? What are all the buttons for? How does a camera
work? It's witchcraft! No it's actually more like this - light hits an object
- light refracts off the object and into the lens
- the object is then reversed and projected onto
film or a wall.
-this is called a camera obscura and is the basis for the beginning of photography! going back to the camera how is an image made? There are three main basics to know
when dealing with the camera SPEED APERTURE ISO speed when talking about photography is referring to the shutter speed, if we imagine the camera as an eye the eye lid would be considered the shutter, and the shutter speed refers to how fast the shutter (or eye lid) can blink. Shutter Aperature Lens however, unlike the eye the camera's shutter remains closed all the time until the shutter button is pressed to let light in, when the shutter opens up and allows light in this is called the exposure time, which is reflective of the shutter speed. when dealing with shutter speeds it's important to remember that really what we are dealing with is time.
SHUTTER SPEED = TIME so what can we do with time? If a photo captures a moment in time how do we reflect that in a still image? By manipulating the shutter speed we can change how time is shown in an image. DEMO poloroid to capture a moment
in time of subject jumping! So a poloroid has a shutter speed of roughly 1/100th of a second so it has the ability to really slow down time. what would 1/1000th of a second look like? these following images will show anything from 1/100th up to extreme examples that need specialized equipment to capture 1/16000th of a second! So if that's what you can do with a fast shutter speed what can be accomplished by slowing down our shutter. if our shutter slows down then we are letting an image in for longer, so what does that do to our image? these following photos will have a shutter speed ranging from 1/25th of a second to 1 full second or more. Think creatively when using shutter speed and how thats going to effect your image.
REMEMBER: SHUTTER SPEED = TIME
so if photography is the process of making images with light then it stands to reason the longer we have the shutter open the more light will enter into our camera. This explains why most of the slow shutter speed images are taken at night. If too much light goes into a photo the photo will blow out or become over exposed. How do we
change the amount of light
that gets into the camera? So if the shutter of a camera is like eyelid of an eye then the pupil in the eye is the aperture of the camera. Aperture is basically a fancy way of talking about the hole that lets in the light. the aperture of a camera is known as an F stop
or an F number. This determines how big the hole is that
will let light in. The bigger the hole the more light that
comes in, and opposite to that the smaller the hole the less
light. In an opposite effect to the size of the opening
the F stop number goes up, so in other words
the larger the number the smaller the opening
and the larger the opening the smaller the number.
lets go back to the diagram! this is not the only thing however that the aperture will effect, the aperture will also effect the depth of field that a photo has. Depth of field is how much of the photo is sharp or in focus. using our aperture we can determine the depth of field of a photo. The larger the number the more of the photo will be in focus, so whats in the foreground and the background will be more in focus, the smaller the number the more that only the objects closer to the camera are in focus while everything behind it will be blurry and out of focus. DEMO Everyone stand in a line while
we discuss the effects of
Depth of Field and Aperture Iso is probably the quickest one out of the three to explain but it is no less important in how we make an image. ISO stands for International Organization of Standardization. which sounds more like an evil justice league then anything to do with photography. What all that really is talking about is the speed of the film. There are two main film speeds. Fast film speed Slow film speed Fast film and slow film are terms that are used to talk about how quickly or slowly film will take up light. This like everything else in photography is indicated with a number, specifically an ISO #. The lower the number the slower the film is to take in the light. Also when shooting with slower film's the slower you will need your shutter speed. A slower ISO is an ISO 25 or an ISO 50. These speeds need a lot of light in the shot or a longer exposure time. Also it should be noted that the lower your ISO the sharper your photo will turn out. Most people shoot with a medium speed film which would be considered ISO 100 to ISO 400. These films are what most people use to capture everyday point and shoot images and are what most cell phone cameras are set to because they are ideal for indoor and out door shooting with variable light settings. Fast films are anything ISO 400 and above with it usually ending as high ISO1600. The faster the film is the more sensitive it is to light and so the exposure times need to be incredibly quick. These are ideal for situations with reduced lighting or capturing sports action shots. lets look at this in an another way... if we think of light as water, and the ISO as a way to absorb the water at different rates then the films would look more like this. A slow film, lower ISO, would be like a rag,
it takes more time to absorb
the water (or light) A fast film, higher ISO would
be like a sponge, it takes less time to
absorb water (or light) Composition When dealing with composition in a photo
it's really up to you to decide how to arrange the image but the key here is to avoid one thing.... DON'T BE BORING!!!!!!!! The first trick i can give you is the rule of thirds,
this rule is something that pops up all over the place from the way things grow in nature to how structures are built, to what makes art appealing to the eye. Even our bodies are made using this rule and it applies to good photography as well. It involves this diagram. The rule of thirds when we are arranging a photo the eye always needs a subject and a resting area where the eye can relax. This relaxing area is not a waste of space but actually lends strength to your subject. The basics for this are that your subject should only take up one third of the photo. Another way to frame this is a 2:1 ratio. let's look at some examples. another key element in adding interest into a photo is by changing your perspective. The average human height is somewhere between 5" and 6" regardless of gender. This effects the photos we take because the eye happens to be right in that height range. So if every photo is taken at this level things can get a little bit boring. When shooting ask this question " what would a (insert animal here) see"
by doing this simple activity you can shoot from a different perspective that will change how your image turns out! What does an ant see? These images are taken from a lower perspective to add height to a photo. If that's what an ant see's what is a birds eye view look like. shots taken from above will shorten body lengths and make subjects look wider. It's important in any form of photography to experiment as much as possible. Everything out lined in this presentation is a list of variables that will be true to any photo taking situation. It's essential that these variables are played with and tested because every situation is different and only through playing with these different tools the camera gives you will you find what kind of photos you love to take! A note on permission: it is at this time worth mentioning that all photos of anyone other then yourself should be taken only after permission is granted. However keep this rule in mind, Public vs Private. If you are in a public space you don't have to ask permission, it is a public space and those who go into the public space are always at risk to what might happen there. If the space is private however you cannot take photos with out granted permission. What defines public vs private? Public spaces are places like streets, public parks and outdoor areas. Places like malls are generally considered to be public but it depends on the individual mall. Private spaces are places like Universities, homes and businesses. If you have trouble with this rule ask yourself this question "Can i enter this space legally at anytime of day without asking permission" if the answer is no then it is a good chance that the space is private. Below is a list of some amazingly useful links that will really touch on all of the content covered here. so please come find this Prezi again use these links to explore the content below.
Understanding Shutter Speed: http://photographylife.com/what-is-shutter-speed-in-photography
25 Composition Tips:
The Rule of Thirds: