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Transcript of Time
Time as a learned perspective
seconds, minutes, parts of the day
monochronic and polychronic time system
Gonzalez, Zimbardo (1999)
Time is a learned cultural perspective.
Under the water level
Which invisible elements of culture determine
or influence the way we experience and handle
value: patience versus impatience
importance of the collective versus individuals
attitudes towards age
attitudes towards social status
preferences for competition or cooperation
norms and etiquette
Time perspectives according to Zimbardo, Boyd & John
In this concept, 6 different time orientations are described in the article ‘Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric’. Each perspective has implications for our behavior.
2 past perspectives
1. Past positive: we remember good old times.
We celebrate birthdays, graduations and keep family records
2. Past negative: we remember all the thing that went wrong. Failure and regret.
2 present perspectives
1. Hedonistic: we live for pleasure and avoid pain.
We seek sensation and knowledge. (like a baby)
2. Life is fated: social structures like religion, economical status, life conditions determine our life. Life as a struggle.
2. The afterlife: people who believe that life begins after death of the mortal body.
Lewis' concept of time
Linear-actives — those who plan, schedule, organize, pursue action chains, do one thing at a time. Germans and Swiss are in this group.
Multi-actives - lively, loquacious peoples who do many things at once, planning their priorities not according to a time schedule, but according to the relative thrill or importance that each appointment brings with it. Italians, Latin Americans and Arabs are members of this group.
Re-actives — those cultures that prioritize courtesy and respect, listening quietly and calmly to their interlocutors and reacting carefully to the other side's proposals. Chinese, Japanese and Finns are in this group
Discuss in pairs what your time orientation is.
How does your orientation affect your future (business) and your intercultural and international communication?
Let's have a look at the proverbs that were
mentioned in the VDO
2 future perspectives
in the future everything needs to be okay.
We work hard rather than play
we avoid and resist temptation
compare the discussed time orientations
with Hofstede's Theory and Trompenaar's
Choose 1 proverb out of each group and explain the meaning.
For each chosen proverb: find a similar proverb in your own language.