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NonVerbal Communication

Culture and Communication Week 5 Ali Vandermey 3843156
by

Ali Vandermey

on 15 August 2013

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Transcript of NonVerbal Communication

Non-Verbal
Communication

The Important Aspects
Non-Verbal Communication
Involves codes which are not derived from spoken languages
Codes of
Non-Verbal
Communication
Haptics
Proxemics
The study of distance as a meaning system
By
Aliantha Vandermey
These codes are conventional and culturally specific
The meaning of non-verbal interaction is influenced by context
E.g. In Lebanon, a nod of the head means 'no', and for English speakers it means 'yes'.
E.g. When you smile, you do not need to also verbally tell people you are happy; your facial expressions can do this without spoken word.
E.g. someone looking upset and withdrawn at a funeral would be considered to be displaying normal behaviour. The same person looking upset and withdrawn on an outing with friends would change the meaning of their non-verbal communication, and we would assume something is wrong with that friend.
Kinesics
Study of gesture as a meaning system
E.g.
"a subordinate is more likely to initiate eye contact with their superior, and less likely to cut it off"
Using eye contact to establish power relationships...
...in different cultures.
E.g.
"in Arabic culture, for instance, polite behaviour requires direct eye contact between men. Japanese culture has it that lowering the eyes is polite"
Body language communicates to others whether we have a closed attitude...
E.g.
"arms and legs crossed, shoulders hunched, eyes and face down...
...an open attitude...
E.g.
"relaxed posture, arms akimbo and head and eyes up"
...and can even be used by future employers!
E.g.
"we cover or twist our mouths or noses when unsure of a response or lying"
The study of the rules governing touch
Haptic rules differ according to culture...
E.g.
"in Latin and some Asian cultures, men typically walk down the street holding hands, as do pairs of women"
...and time and their rules.
E.g.
"in the past, it was acceptable for men to touch the arms of women who were working for them. In recent years, awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace has made such actions... risky..."
Chronemics
The code relating to the use of time
Proxemics can indicate our like or dislike towards something...

1. Intimate 10-30cm Very close family or trusted friend
2. Personal 30-100cm Casual relations at party with friends
3. Social 1-2.5m Business or impersonal relations
4. Formal >2.5m Public situations as in lectures
...our power over others, or others' power over us...
...and our feelings towards others.
E.g.
"television gives us a view of newsreaders and politicians and the heroes of soap operas magnified as if they were 20cm from us. That is well within the intimate distance"
E.g.
"a camera shot that is taken from above, for instance, puts the viewer in an inferior position to the interviewee. Politicians will avoid being below the camera, and will aim to be on a level or above the cameras, thus appearing all knowing"
Chronemics greatly influence verbal communication...
E.g.
"there are differences between the time acceptable between utterances".

philosopher
speed dating
...is greatly influenced by context...
E.g.
"there are also different interpretations of the accuracy of time expressions"

meeting with the boss
going to the doctor
'five minutes'
...and is most greatly influenced by culture.
E.g.
"[Rudder] distinguishes three different Yolngu types of time:
'cyclical' time (the events which recur through the seasons)
continuum time (the Western conception used to describe the life of a person or events in living memory)
mythological time, which is eternal and recurrent"


"chronemic codes only apply within a cultural context"
The Importance of Culture
Intercultural Differences
"much of Japanese nonverbal behaviour is concerned with establishing a sense of synchrony -'agreeing with others'....
...In contrast, Western attitudes value individuality".
Gender Differences
"American studies show that women smile more frequently than men and are expected to do so... unsmiling women are viewed far more negatively than unsmiling men"
In Conclusion...
Nonverbal behaviour includes
kinesics
proxemics
haptics
chronemics
Nonverbal behaviour is dependent on
gender
context
culture
Nonverbal behaviour
reinforces verbal behaviour
contradicts verbal behaviour
is used by everyone, ALL THE TIME!
Have a good 'break'!
Mr. Bean 2009, ‘Mr Bean - Takes the train', video file, viewed 14 March 2013, <http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=KsgJC6brhgc>.
Lewis, G and Slade, C 2000, Critical Communication, 2nd edn, Prentice Hall, Sydney.
(Mr Bean 2009)
nwo79 2009, 'Proxemics', video file, viewed 19 March 2013, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= tgO8V6Td AKM>.
Distant lands travel 2012, 'Hand gestures around the world, video file, viewed 10 March 2013, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h0V1YkccEE>.
(Distant Lands Travel 2012)
(nwo79 2009)
ucmagic 2011, 'Body language reading women non-verbal tricks', viewed 17 March 2013, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Wirl_79vS0>.
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 80)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 80)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 81)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 81)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 81)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 81)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 81-2)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 82)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 83)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 82)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 83)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 83)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 84)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 83-4)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 87)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 87)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 79)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 79)
(Lewis and Slade 2000, p. 79)
References
Full transcript