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STD and STI Prevention

An e-learning presentation for NURS4720

Trisha Ryk

on 16 July 2014

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Transcript of STD and STI Prevention

STD and STI Facts and Prevention

There are two primary ways that STDs are transmitted. Some diseases, such as HIV infection, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis, are transmitted when infected urethral or vaginal secretions contact mucosal surfaces (such as the male urethra, the vagina, or cervix). In contrast, genital ulcer diseases (such as genital herpes, syphilis, and chancroid) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are primarily transmitted through contact with infected skin or mucosal surfaces.
Risk Factors
Common STIs and STDs
Sexually transmitted diseases and infections can happen to anyone who is involved sexually with another partner.
Those at high risk are those who do not practice safe sex. This includes; vaginal intercourse, Anal penetration, and unprotected oral stimulation.
The only guaranteed way to prevent the spread of disease or infection is through abstinence or masturbation. However, this presentation has summarized ways of decreasing the risk for those who are sexually active.
Young Canadians have the highest reported rates of sexually transmitted infections; however, increasing numbers of cases are being reported among middle-aged and older adults.
Untreated sexually transmitted infections can have long-term health outcomes.
"A common STD that can infect both men and women. It can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman's reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible for her to get pregnant later on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb)." (CDC)
"A common and highly contagious infection usually spread through sex. This infection is usually caused by the herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) or the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), the virus usually responsible for cold sores. Genital herpes treatment includes medicines to help sores heal faster and prevent outbreaks." CDC)
"A highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity, including oral and anal sex. Occasionally, the disease can be passed to another person through prolonged kissing or close bodily contact. Although this disease is spread from sores, the vast majority of those sores go unrecognized. The infected person is often unaware of the disease and unknowingly passes it on to his or her sexual partner." (CDC)
Having unprotected sex.
Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner who is not wearing a latex condom transmits some diseases with particular efficiency. Without a condom, a man who has gonorrhea has a 70 to 80 percent chance of infecting his female partner in a single act of vaginal intercourse. Improper or inconsistent use of condoms can also increase your risk. Oral sex is less risky but may still transmit infection without a latex condom or dental dam. Dental dams — thin, square pieces of rubber made with latex or silicone — prevent skin-to-skin contact.
Having sexual contact with multiple partners.
The more people you have sexual contact with, the greater your overall exposure risks. This is true for concurrent partners as well as monogamous consecutive relationships.
Having a history of STIs
Being infected with one STI makes it much easier for another STI to take hold. If you're infected with herpes, syphilis, gonorrhea or chlamydia and you have unprotected sex with an HIV-positive partner, you're more likely to contract HIV. Also, it's possible to be reinfected by the same infected partner if he or she isn't also treated.
Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs.
Substance abuse can inhibit your judgment, making you more willing to participate in risky behaviors.
Injecting drugs.
Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C. If you acquire HIV by injecting drugs, you can transmit it sexually.
Being an adolescent female
In adolescent girls, the immature cervix is made up of constantly changing cells. These unstable cells make the adolescent female cervix more vulnerable to certain sexually transmitted organisms.
A few things to consider...
Has this presentation taught you new information?
Will you act on your new found knowledge?

What can you do?
1. Request for a blood test/urine test at your local family doctor.
2. If you are within the ages of 13 - 30 request an HPV vaccine from you local healthcare practitioner .
3. Understand your risks and take action.
5. spread the word and knowledge.

Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
In Canada, reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis have been steadily rising since the late 1990s.

People under the age of 25 account for 66% of new STIs.
Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms can reduce (though not eliminate) the risk of STD transmission.
Many infected persons may be unaware of their infections because STDs are often asymptomatic or unrecognized.
An understanding of the relationship between STDs and HIV infection can help in the development of effective HIV prevention programs for persons with high-risk sexual behaviors.
"Individuals who are infected with STDs are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected individuals to acquire HIV infection if they are exposed to the virus through sexual contact. In addition, if an HIV-infected individual is also infected with another STD, that person is more likely to transmit HIV through sexual contact than other HIV-infected persons"(CDC).
HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)
"Is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is a different virus than HIV and HSV (herpes). HPV is so common that nearly all sexually active men and women get it at some point in their lives. There are many different types of HPV. Some types can cause health problems including genital warts and cancers. But there are vaccines that can stop these health problems from happening." (CDC)
"Is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years." (CDC)
Trichomoniasis (aka Trich)
"Is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Although symptoms of the disease vary, most women and men who have the parasite cannot tell they are infected." (CDC)
How to Protect Yourself
There are plenty of methods you can use to lower your risk of catching an STD or STI! Keep in mind that no method is 100% effective
Condoms are probably one of the most popular ways of protecting against pregnancy, STDs, and STIs. There are plenty of options available when it comes to condoms. There are both female and male condoms
Male Condoms
Male condoms come in a wide variety of sizes, colours, flavours, brands, and textures. There are both latex and latex-free condoms available.
Female Condoms

A thin latex used to cover the vulva or the anus when preforming oral sex.
Both men and women can use it to prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases or infections.
An over the counter contraceptive that is controlled by the female by placing it inside her vagina to hold the sperm.
Disadvantage: cost of $3/female condom with a failure rate of 5%.

How to put on a male condom
Risk Factors
Risk Factors
How to use a dental dam
Where to find dental dams
Though dental dams are relatively new, they can be found in various places such as drug stores, pharmacies, sex shops, online websites and sexual health clinics.

Please take the time to do our Quiz!
Thank you for viewing our presentation! please feel free to leave comments and questions on Group F discussion board!
Full transcript