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The effects of teacher stigma towards student subcultures on teacher-student relationships.
Transcript of The effects of teacher stigma towards student subcultures on teacher-student relationships.
& the marked... Marker: Person who is stigmatizing another
Marked: Person who is being stigmatized What is stigma? Most widely used definitions:
Goffman (1963): an "attribute that is deeply discrediting" and that reduces the bearer "from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one."
Jones et al (1984): an "attribute and a stereotype" to produce a definition of stigma as a "mark" (attribute) that links a person to undesirable characteristics (stereotypes).
An integrated definition by Link & Phelan (2011): stigma exists when elements of labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination occur together in a power situation that allows them How does one become
Marked? Two Types of Marks
Visible: Physical deformity/handicap, weight, height, skin color, clothing, tattoos, etc
Invisible: Mental or physical illness, addiction, taboo lifestyle/perversion, sexual orientation, etc Origins of the Mark: Stigma In the Teacher-Student Relationship Mark: an attribute that defines one as deviant, flawed, limited, spoiled or generally undesirable. A mark may or may not be physical; may be embedded in behavior, biography, ancestry or group membership. Welcome vs. Unwelcome Marks Many try to hide/are embarrassed by their mark. However, when individuals choose their mark they are more likely to openly display it and welcome the accompanying attention. How does a marker
respond to the marked? "Very often the most appropriate way for markers to cope with the discomfort, revulsion or hostility they feel toward various marked individuals is to minimize social contact and interaction with the marked individual" "Markers may erroneously assume that they are at peril because of a markables' stigmatizing condition" Distance
Fear How do the markers develop their feelings towards marks? 1) Sociocultural Perspective: Beliefs are developed from information received from others and direct experience with a limited sample of a social category
2) Motivational Approach: The marker fears that the traits/impulses of the marked may exist within the marker themselves
3) Cognitive Approach: Our beliefs are developed through cognitive functioning that results in analyzing society Youth subcultures as a
community of the marked "Some marked people may seek out relationships with others who share a similar mark." These relationships can evolve into
a community that embraces and celebrates the stigmatizing characteristics of the group through clothing choices, group specific jargon, and other markers that represent the individual's association with the community. One such example that is becoming widespread among American youth is the Juggalo subculture. What is a Juggalo? With an abundance of negative media criticizing Juggalo subculture with claims of gang affiliation, violent lyrics, frequent use of profanity, and chaotic gatherings, the group has been labeled as a deviant community. Perceived Deviance Deviant: Someone who has violated rules of conduct that the rest of the community holds in high respect. When a teacher presumes deviance due to a student's identification with a subculture, the student can become stereotyped by the teacher.
Taylor (1981) "We do not stereotype individuals, we stereotype individuals as members of categories." How does stigma affect teacher-student relationships? "Any false belief about a social category, no matter how widely shared, can affect the belief holder's relations with members of that category" Insights from Brophy 1974
1) Students shape teacher behavior
at the same time that their own behavior is being influenced by the teacher.
2) Some teachers not only react, but over-react to students as more different than they actually are.
3) Teacher attitude and perception influence students behavior & achievement.
4) Students self-concept is heavily influenced by teachers. If a teacher stereotypes a student as a low achiever, they will generally create an atmosphere in which students fulfill their prophecies.
5) Teachers tend to distance themselves from students of whom they have a negative perception. A long way to go...
And a short time to
get there... There is still a quite bit more research to be conducted before the final paper is written. However there are a few items that I hope you take away from this presentation... "All of us belong to categories that are evaluated negatively in at least some contexts and within these contexts we can be described as being stigmatized." Whether you have been stigmatized for dressing like a hippie and listening to Phish, being German, or not being able to grow a beard...We've all had times where we felt "out of place" or that we didn't fit in...Keep this in mind when developing bonds with your students who may have been marginalized, stereotyped, bullied, or ignored by others due to their mark. By: Tony Neely
ILT7003 Crosnoe et al (2004) supports Brophy's assertion that positive intergenerational bonds between students and teachers can serve as an indicator of student achievement and behavior in the classroom.