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Intelligence

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by

Peter Baggetta

on 9 March 2016

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Transcript of Intelligence

Intelligence
Outcome Goals:
Theories of Intelligence
Environmental
Factors
Role of
Genetic Factors
Group
Differences
IQ Tests
1. Discuss current findings and theoretical
developments of intelligence to include:
a. genetic and environmental factors
b. group differences

2. Discuss the use of IQ tests
What is intelligence?
How do you measure it?
Catell and Horn:
Fluid intelligence - g (F)
Crystallized intelligence - g (C)
Genetic influence for higher SES found in U.S but mixed results in Europe


Social Factors
- large effect on IQ
- adopted children ~ 12+ points

Interventions

Exercise and Aging

Flynn Effect
no difference due to single-sex education
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon = Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Calculation of intelligence quotient: child’s mental age (MA) ÷ child’s chronological age (CA) = IQ

100 = average intelligence

2/3 scores between 85 and 115

> 3% scores of 130 or above = gifted

> than 3% scores below 70 = mental retardation
Fluid Intelligence
ability to use the mind actively to solve novel problems
depends relatively little on stored knowledge
reasoning
mediated by the PFC and Executive Function processes
declines more rapidly with age
large gains in recent decades
large changes during adolescence
Crystallized Intelligence
use of knowledge acquired through school and life experiences
store of knowledge about nature of the world
learned operations (i.e. arithmetic)
not mediated by the PFC
declines less rapidly with age
lower gains in recent decades
tests of general information
talking to children
encouraging comments (6:1)
intellectual stimulation
neighborhood/peers/schools
when start school
summer "loss" - greater for low SES
teacher quality
school environments
(class days, class sizes, curriculum)
physical exercise = reduce likelihood of Alzheimer's
cognitive exercise = may slow down decline from age
20th century average IQ scores + 3 to 4 points per decade
IQ scores + 18 points over 50 years
Developing nations catching up to developed nations
Why??
Related to:
grades at school
work performance
income
occupational prestige
complexity of work
job performance ratings
health and longer life
Development
Children:

Beginning at age 4, fairly strong relationship between early and later IQ

After age 7, IQ scores stabilize

Children’s standings (high or low) in comparison with peers stay stable
Adolescence:

IQ scores are a good predictor of school achievement

Better predictor of high school grades
than of college grades
How accurate and useful are standard IQ tests?
Development
Infants:
by 14 months learn that adults can help them solve problems
pay attention to cues provided by adults and solicit help from adults by pointing

Children:
rule assessment approach - take in information about a problem and formulate rules to account for the information
Overlapping waves theory – process of variability, choice, and change where selection and use of strategies becomes more efficient

Adolescents:
perform cognitive operations more quickly than children do
maturational changes in the brain - process information more quickly and process more chunks of information
metamemory, metacognition, and metastrategies improve (girls and high SES more)

Adults:
can use experience to solve meaningful problems
declines in basic capacities may limit the problem-solving capacity
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Verbal-Linguistic
Logical-Mathematical
Visual-Spatial
Musical
Naturalistic
Bodily-Kinesthetic
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
What MI Is - and Is Not
Everyone possesses all eight with varying levels of aptitude

No claim about everyone being gifted in at least one

Does not offer how to teach, rather an idea about concept of intelligence

Core premise = intelligence better thought of as multiple rather than general
Intelligence varies from culture to culture
Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Spearman’s General intelligence (g)
Factor Analysis = clusters of mental abilities
verbal intelligence
spatial ability
reasoning ability
= One General Intelligence
Robert Sternberg
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Much of intelligence heritable
Heritability of IQ = very low for lower SES
"Smart Gene"??
Why?
improved nutrition and living conditions
more focused attention from parents
better education - scientific reasoning
Industrial/Computer revolution
no evidence of genetic differences
due to environmental differences
Gender
Females = verbal tasks
no overall differences in g
Males = visuospatial tasks/
more language difficulties
Race
Asians vs White:
similar on IQ tests
Asians score higher on SAT
Blacks vs Whites:
Do you think intelligence tests are culturally biased?
The Flynn Effect
Are we getting
smarter or dumber?
Full transcript