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Peter Baggetta

on 8 March 2018

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Transcript of Intelligence

Outcome Goals:
Theories of Intelligence
Role of
Genetic Factors

IQ Tests
1. Discuss current findings and theoretical developments of intelligence to include:
a. genetic and environmental factors
b. group differences

2. Discuss the use of IQ tests
What is intelligence?
How do you measure it?
Catell and Horn:
Fluid intelligence - g (F)
Crystallized intelligence - g (C)
Some genetic influence for higher SES

Social Factors
- large effect on IQ
- adopted children ~ 12+ points


Exercise and Aging

Flynn Effect
no difference due to single-sex education
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon = Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Calculation of intelligence quotient: child’s mental age (MA) ÷ child’s chronological age (CA) = IQ

100 = average intelligence

2/3 scores between 85 and 115

> 3% scores of 130 or above = gifted

> than 3% scores below 70 = mental retardation
Fluid Intelligence
ability to use the mind actively to solve novel problems
depends relatively little on stored knowledge
mediated by the PFC and Executive Function processes
declines more rapidly with age
large gains in recent decades
large changes during adolescence
Crystallized Intelligence
use of knowledge acquired through school and life experiences
store of knowledge about nature of the world
learned operations (i.e. arithmetic)
not mediated by the PFC
declines less rapidly with age
lower gains in recent decades
tests of general information
talking to children
encouraging comments (6:1)
intellectual stimulation
when start school
summer "loss" - greater for low SES
teacher quality
school environments
(class days, class sizes, curriculum)
physical exercise = reduce likelihood of Alzheimer's
cognitive exercise = may slow down decline from age
20th century average IQ scores + 3 to 4 points per decade
IQ scores + 18 points over 50 years
Developing nations catching up to developed nations
Related to:
grades at school
work performance
occupational prestige
complexity of work
job performance ratings
health and longer life
How accurate and useful are standard IQ tests?
by 14 months learn that adults can help them solve problems
pay attention to cues provided by adults and solicit help from adults by pointing

rule assessment approach - take in information about a problem and formulate rules to account for the information
Overlapping waves theory – process of variability, choice, and change where selection and use of strategies becomes more efficient

perform cognitive operations more quickly than children do
maturational changes in the brain - process information more quickly and process more chunks of information
metamemory, metacognition, and metastrategies improve (girls and high SES more)

can use experience to solve meaningful problems
declines in basic capacities may limit the problem-solving capacity
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligence
What MI Is - and Is Not
Everyone possesses all eight with varying levels of aptitude

No claim about everyone being gifted in at least one

Does not offer how to teach, rather an idea about concept of intelligence

Core premise = intelligence better thought of as multiple rather than general
Intelligence varies from culture to culture
Ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
Is Intelligence One General Ability or Several Specific Abilities?
Spearman’s General intelligence (g)
Factor Analysis = clusters of mental abilities
verbal intelligence
spatial ability
reasoning ability
= One General Intelligence
Robert Sternberg
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Much of intelligence heritable
Heritability of IQ = very low for lower SES
Shared Environment
"Smart Gene"??
improved nutrition and living conditions
more focused attention from parents
better education - scientific reasoning
Industrial/Computer revolution
no evidence of genetic differences
due to environmental differences
Females = verbal tasks
no overall differences in g
Males = visuospatial tasks/more language difficulties
Asians vs White:
similar on IQ tests
Asians score higher on SAT
Blacks vs Whites:
The Flynn Effect
Are we getting
smarter or dumber?
Biological Factors
Breast Feeding = Increase IQ
6 points for normal weight
8 points for premature
Role of social class?
Lack of micronutrients and presence of environmental toxins = Detrimental
Biopsychosocial Approach - intricate interplay
Stereotype Threat
Test takers aware of wide spread stereotype of a group's intelligence
Results in anxiety and over-arousal
Can impair cognitive functioning and suppresses intellectual achievements
Steele and Aronson, 1995
Blacks = intellectual tests
Females = math and science
Latinos = verbal ability
Elderly = short-term memory
Low SES students = verbal abilities
Full transcript