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Revising POLITENESS PRINCIPLES
Transcript of Revising POLITENESS PRINCIPLES
Can you remember each maxim and what it stood for? POLITENESS PRINCIPLES
These are the principles that various theorists suggest are crucial to CO-OPERATIVE TALK
In class, we considered 3 key theorists.
BROWN AND LEVINSON LAKOFF Had enough yet??? Nearly there for today. MAXIM OF QUANTITY
MAXIM OF QUALITY
MAXIM OF MANNER
MAXIM OF RELEVANCE SO, LET'S GET STARTED! Irving Goffman (1955) wrote an important study called
“THE PRESENTATION OF SELF IN EVERYDAY LIFE”
A collection of 6 essays that discussed the image we present of ourselves on a day to day basis.
Terms of address and introductions are often the first way we present ourselves – think about how you would feel if you had introduced yourself or greeted someone inappropriately – how would you feel? WHERE DOES THIS ALL FIT IN? Establishing a tone with terms of address?
What do you establish about the relationships from the term of address used?
How important is a term of address when being introduced? ME, Myself and i! WHO ARE YOU? Terms of address
an introduction to face work and politeness theory. We wrote down all of the names you have been addressed/introduced as and who called you them. STARTER TASK Karen Kazza!!! Auntie Kaka Mrs G Mrs Griffiths Kaz Sis Mum Mummy Miss Ms Mate Madam She who must be obeyed Oi! What impact does culture have? Use compliments
Use appropriate terms of address
Use appropriate greetings
Pay attention to other speakers and show interest
Seek agreement (choose safe topics)
Avoid disagreement(pretend to agree, hedge)
Presuppose common ground
Share dialect, informal lexis and grammar
Craft tag questions into conversation POSITIVE POLITENESS
Addressing positive face needs - the need to be liked
Designed to AVOID giving offence by highlighting FRIENDLINESS Called the image that we present ourselves to others our “face”.
Once an individual gives out a positive self image of themselves to others they then feel a need to keep or live up to that set image. When individuals are inconsistent with how they project themselves in society, they risk being embarrassed or discredited, therefore the individual remains consistently guarded, making sure that they do not show themselves in an unfavourable way to others. GOFFMAN (1955) In English, we still use phrases that give us some clue as to the meaning of “face work”.
In pairs, consider what you understand by the following terms:
“losing face” Today The concept of “face” as we are going to discuss it is Chinese in its origin.
In a recent study, over 98 words were found in a Chinese dictionary to describe the concept. THINK OF CHINESE CULTURE. Wrap up unpleasant requests/orders with hedges
Skirt around unpleasant topics
Be indirect/ impersonal
Be apologetic NEGATIVE POLITENESS
Respecting the need for social distance and not intruding.
Designed to avoid giving offence by showing DEFERENCE Developed Goff’s theory
POSITIVE FACE – our need to be liked and accepted
NEGATIVE FACE – our right not to be imposed upon
POLITENESS involves the speaker showing an awareness of the other’s “face needs” Brown and Levinson One aspect of the cooperative nature of conversation is that we generally accept the face that others offer us.
If something is said or done that challenges or rejects another’s face, this is termed a “face threatening” act (eg. Telling someone they do not know what they are talking about)
Face work is about maintaining status.
Status often determines the “face needs” of individuals eg. Using deferential language - eg. I know you already know this but I just wanted to run over it again... Accepting Face What’s that face supposed to mean? WHAT IS FACE WORK? What do you understand by that phrase? The maxim of quantity, where one tries to be as informative as one possibly can, and gives as much information as is needed, and no more.
The maxim of quality, where one tries to be truthful, and does not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence.
The maxim of relevance, where one tries to be relevant, and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
The maxim of manner, when one tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one can in what one says, and where one avoids obscurity and ambiguity HOW IMPORTANT IS CONTEXT? The way we introduce ourselves or one another often sets the tone. We expect to be introduced differently depending on the context.
Can you think of an example? The way we introduce ourselves is part of what we call our presentation of self. This was an idea that was expanded upon by GOFFMAN Be polite
Make others feel good PRAGMATICS “Pragmatics studies the factors that govern our choice of language
in social interaction and the effects of our choice on others.” CAN YOU COME UP WITH AN EXAMPLE OF EACH?