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US_Pre The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877)
Transcript of US_Pre The Civil War and Reconstruction (1860-1877)
End of Reconstruction
South Carolina called a special convention to propose the idea of seceding
With the "Declaration of Causes of Secession," Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Louisiana, Texas, and South Carolina seceded
South Carolina seceded from the Union and demanded that all federal property be surrendered. When South Carolina found out that Lincoln planned to send supplies to the fort, the Confederate Army started bombarding the Fort which later fell. The North declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Lincoln and Secession
Extension of Slavery
The North favored a high tariff to protect northern industry from foreign competition. The South opposed a tariff since it raised the prices of goods that they consumed, and they feared retaliation from Europe.
The North believed the bank could stabilize prices and provide credit, so they were in favor of it. The South, on the other hand, opposed it because adequate credit was available through state banks. They saw the national bank as too paternalistic and overpowering.
The South opposed them because their markets were in the North, not the West. Some northerners agreed with this reasoning, but others desired a road system that would connect the North to western markets. Westerners were in favor as the new transportation systems would connect their goods with the East.
The North favored immigration, as it provided a source of cheap labor. The South opposed it, since the influx of people to the North gave the latter more representation in Congress.
The South wanted to extend slavery because it was necessary for the production of cotton. The North and West took the opposite stance, claiming that slavery endangered free labor.
President Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Amnesty to Confederates taking loyalty oath
Statehood reestablished when 10 percent of voters took the oath
Strengthen southern Republican Party in local governments
Lenient policy: He believed the Union never broke
President Johnson's "Restoration" Plan
Give freed slaves the right to vote
Ratify the Thirteenth Amendment
Renunciation of secession
Repudiation of Confederate Debt
Did not want to significantly change the southern way of life.
Radical Republican Reconstruction
Required a majority of voters in a state to take loyalty oath
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Scalawags and Carpetbaggers
Whites who tried to benefit from Reconstruction
The 13th Amendment abolished the practice of involuntary servitude
The 14th Amendment granted citizenship to all people born in the US
The 15th Amendment gave all citizens the right to vote, regardless of race
Most of the newly freed African Americans had no place to go so they stayed in the South to work on plantations for a share of the crops that they worked
Plessy v. Ferguson
A Supreme Court decision that upheld the ruling of segregation (separate but equal).
A federal agency that was formed to aid newly freed blacks in the South after the war. It was vetoed by Andrew Johnson.
These laws imposed severe restrictions on the rights of African Americans
A secret organization founded during Reconstruction to terrorize and intimidate ex-slaves to keep them from voting and holding public office (lynching)
Things like literacy tests, poll taxes, and grandfather clauses were put in place to keep newly freed slaves voting
African-Americans in Reconstruction
Lincoln's Inaugural Address
In his inaugural address, Lincoln stated there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it
It also stated the South could not separate from the Union
Election of 1860
Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate and won by a landslide because of a split in the Democratic party
Lincoln did not receive a single electoral vote from the southern states
The goal of the Anaconda plan was to control the South's waterways and slow their ability to wage war.
This was the turning point of the war for Union forces. Lincoln gave the Gettysburg Address, which dedicated a cemetery and showed Lincoln's power as Commander-in-Chief.
After the battle of Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863), which freed all slaves in rebellious states.
Johnson disobeyed the Tenure of Office Act (1867) and was impeached.
He was saved from removal by one vote.
President Grant (1868-1876)
Era of Good Stealings: Corruption characterized the Grant administration, yet he served two terms.
Election of 1876
Rutherford B Hayes (R)
Samuel J. Tilden (D)
Dispute over the validity of the electoral votes of three southern states.
Compromise of 1877
Hayes is handed the presidency in exchange for:
Withdrawal of federal troops from the South
Legislation to support southern industrialization
Appointment of a Democrat to the cabinet
Efforts to assure civil rights for African-Americans were abandoned.
"Solid South"--Democratic Majority in the South
End of northern efforts to reconstruct the South because the North was busy with industrialization and the formation of big business.