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How did the Bolshevik Revolution change Russia?
Transcript of How did the Bolshevik Revolution change Russia?
The Russian Revolution of 1905 began in St. Petersburg on Jan. 22.
Troops fired on a defenseless crowd of workers led by the priest Father Gapon.
They were marching to the Winter Palace to petition Czar Nicholas II for better working conditions, more personal freedom, and an elected national legislature.
This "bloody Sunday" was followed in succeeding months by a series of strikes, riots, assassinations, naval mutinies, and peasant outbreaks.
March Revolution 1917
government corruption, the Russian economy remained backward, Nicholas II repeatedly dissolved the Duma when it opposed his will, and Russia’s disastrous involvement in World War I.
In March 1917, women textile workers in Petrograd led a citywide strike.
In the next five days, riots flared up over shortages of bread and fuel.
At first the soldiers obeyed orders to shoot the rioters but later sided with them.
The local protest exploded into a general uprising.
Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne; Provisional Government was set up.
The March Revolution succeeded in bringing down the czar but it failed to set up a strong government to replace his regime.
Leaders of the Duma established a
, or temporary government.
headed the provisional government.
His decision to continue fighting in World War I cost him the support of both soldiers and civilians.
Angry peasants demanded land. City workers grew more radical. Socialist revolutionaries, competing for power, formed
Soviets were local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers.
In many cities, the soviets had more influence than the provisional government.
: power shared between the provisional government and the Petrograd soviet.
November (Bolshevik) Revolution 1917
Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917?
Autocratic monarchy -> Revolutions -> USSR
In 1913, Tsar Nicholas II celebrated the tercentenary of Romanov rule in Russia.
He and his dynasty ruled over a huge empire, stretching from central Europe to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic to the borders of Afghanistan.
In 1913, the Russian empire comprised 125 million people.
Just a few years after the celebrations, Nicholas' empire would be defeated in the World War and wracked by revolutions, civil wars and foreign interventions.
In 1918, the Royal family was dead, executed by the Bolsheviks,
Most people were still peasants.
Serfdom was only abolished in 1861
Poor living and working conditions for industrial workers.
High illiteracy rates.
Life expectancy of 35 years.
Many different nationalities, languages and religions
The Tzar had total power.
Supporter of Russian nationalism; oppressed and persecuted other national groups within Russia.
New political forces:
Proletariat - Russia was industrializing and the workers in St Petersburg, were poor and oppressed.
Bourgeois - the representatives of the new middle class industrialists.
Outdated farming techniques
Poor transport system
Defeat against Japan in 1904: competition for Manchuria.
Government issued a manifesto promising civil liberties and a representative duma to be elected democratically.
The first two freely elected Dumas were made up of the Tsar’s enemies and were quickly dissolved. The next two Dumas were docile, conservative bodies that supported the government line.
Growing Political opposition
A faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP)
Led by Lenin.
Marxists who favored a socialist party that was directed by a small elite.
Only militant revolutionaries could prevail then the masses could come into the party.
Gradually, gained support from Russian workers.
Wanted to modernize Russia gradually.
Admired the parliamentary systems of France, UK.
Wanted elections, education for the people, no censorship.
Unit 3: the Rise of Totalitarian States