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Copy of Introduction to Your health

Health Triangle, Values, Goals, Making Decisions, Nutrition

Tom Caruso

on 25 June 2018

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Transcript of Copy of Introduction to Your health

Health Triangle
The quality of life we enjoy, when the physical, mental, social, intellectual, environmental, and spiritual dimensions of our lives are in balance-- When no dimension is being neglected or overemphasized.
Identify what needs to be decided on.
List at least three options or courses of action.
What are the positive and negative consequences of each option?
Are there others that will be affected by these options?
Choose the best option.
Design a plan to help ensure success
Evaluate your decision.
Decision Making Model
Introductory Unit
Making Decisions
What decisions do teenagers make that would fit into these three categories
We tend to make more minor decisions.
We usually need less feedback from others when making minor decisions.
Moderate & Major decisions carry more consequences.
Moderate & Major decisions have more effect on people’s lives.
People often seek advice for moderate & major decisions.
Having a process for making moderate & major decisions is helpful.
What mental criteria did you use to categorize these decisions?
Twin seniors Daryl and Danielle have major decisions to make. Both want to have successful careers in basketball.

Daryl plans to attend a university and play on its basketball team, while taking courses to prepare him to be a coach. His ultimate dream is to play in the NBA, but he would also like coaching college basketball and even coaching in the NBA someday. Daryl is currently practicing hard to make his senior year on the team his best ever to increase his chances of earning an athletic scholarship. He is also studying intensely to enlarge his chances of obtaining an academic scholarship.

Danielle wants to get rich, and she figures a career playing in the women's NBA is the ticket. Her high school coaches said she had talent and that she should go to college and further develop herself as a player. Danielle, however, would rather party than study, and her current grades will make it difficult to get into a university. Anyway, Danielle feels that college is a waste of her time. She believes a talent scout will see her shooting hoops in her neighborhood someday and offer her a lucrative contract to play in the WNBA. To further increase her chances of becoming wealthy, Danielle also plays the state lottery.
Daryl is choosing to take an active role in determining his destiny.
Danielle is trusting in luck and fate to determine her destiny.
Difference between Daryl & Danielle?
Are setting goals important?
Why?/ Why not? --- Be able to explain.
If you don’t know where you are going you will probably end up somewhere else.
Two Types of Goals
Long Term – choices made now affect health later in life
Short Term – goals that can be reached somewhere in the near future
Can be independent of long term
Can coincide with long term
Good Goals should have the following characteristics
Under your control
Are the following examples of well written goals?
Next year I will make varsity soccer.
This summer I will exercise more.
For the next month I will eat one green vegetable per day.
Next week I want to make sure I am not lazy.
Next semester I want my friends to stop pressuring me to drink every weekend.
For five days in a row, I would like to drink a healthy amount of water.
On the health exam I want to try my hardest.
Next semester I want to join three new clubs.
I want to win the field hockey state championship next year.
Next year I want to communicate more with my friends.
Action Steps to reach your goal
Set a goal
Have a plan
Small steps
Identify driving and restraining forces
Periodically evaluate your progress
A state of complete physical, mental, social, intellectual, environmental, and spiritual well being.
Physical health refers to the state of your body; how well your body systems effectively manage your daily activities.
Involves our feelings and thoughts; how aware and how well we are able to accept our feelings and emotions, it also involves being able to properly deal with the feelings of others.
Refers to our ability to interact effectively with others, the social environment and the development of satisfying relationships
Refers to your ability to think and learn from life experience, your openness to new ideas, your capacity to question and evaluate information.
The impact your world has on your well being
The belief in some meaning or order in the universe that a greater significance to individual life.
“It’s not doing things
but doing the right things. “
“If you stand for nothing.

You fall for anything.”
How do we feel when we do something that goes against our values?

Happiness comes from letting values decide your behavior and goals.

Values can change over a life-time as your experiences change your view.

Ages 1-7 --- parents
Ages 8-13 --- teachers, heroes (sports, music, TV)
Ages 14-20 --- peers (values because of peers or peers because of values?)
Ages 21+ your values are established, but you may test your values from time to time.
our homes,
time-period in which you were raised (70’s anti-establishment, peace, individuality. 80’s money, prestige, don’t get caught, etc. 90’s earth, green peace, health and fitness), etc.
Values give direction and consistency to behavior.
Values help you know what to and not to make time for.
Values establish a relationship between you and the world.
Values set the direction for one’s life.
Unclear values
Clear values
Life of purpose
Meaning and direction
What you choose to do with your time also says something about what you value.
You have been given a check for $1000.00 to do whatever you like with it. What would you do with it?

What you spend the money on says something about what you value
Qualities, characteristics, or ideas about which we feel strongly.
Our values affect our decisions, goals and behavior.
A belief or feeling that someone or something is worthwhile.
Values define what is of worth, what is beneficial, and what is harmful
Values are standards to guide your action, judgments, and attitudes.
Reverse Engineering
What do you want to accomplish and what do you want people to say about you?
Write your obituary
Include the following
The standards that you value the most
Your hobbies and interests
Your Educational and occupational accomplishments
Surviving family members
Varying Standards
Do standards vary among you and your peers?
Agree, disagree or no opinion.
Standards and Our Health
How do our standards affect our health?
Student Answers
Ultimately they drive all of our behaviors/actions/choices
Role Models
I admire handout
Forming Personal Standards
How do we form our personal standards?
Student Answers
Influence of family
Influence of the community
Influence of peers/friends
Role models/media
Past Experiences
What is our most important standard at PDS?
What is your most important personal standard?
Discuss with a partner and be prepared to report back to the class.
Personal vs. Community
A community standard is a point of reference imposed on a group of people.
A personal standard is a point of reference created by you and for your use only.
What are some examples of each?
How are the two different
Introduction Unit
What are standards?
Student Answers
A reference point used to judge people or events.
2800 X .60 = 1680
2800 X .30 = 840
2800 X .10 = 280

2200 X .60 = 1320
2200 X .30 = 660
2200 X .10 = 220
10% Protein
Used in the body to build and repair tissue.
4 calories per gram
Most common sources of protein are found in:
60% Carbohydrates
Major source of calories your body uses to provide energy for work, maintain cells and generate heat.
4 calories per gram
Examples include:
The 6 Nutrients
Total calories
Boys 2,800
Girls 2,200
What are the total calories of…..
Carbs = 60%
Fats = 30%
Proteins = 10%
How do you make 60-30-10 work?
30% Fat
Another source of energy
Absorption of some vitamins
Nerve insulator
Saturated fats are bad –hard at room temp
Trans fat are very bad – “hydrogenated fats”
Unsaturated fats are good – liquid at room temp.
9 calories per gram
Examples of fat can be found in:
Wheat Bread
Bojangles bacon egg& cheese Biscuit
Potato Chips
Brueggers Bagel
Peanut Butter
Tomato soup
Power Bar
Mac and Cheese
The Food
On a piece of paper, guess how many calories per serving are in each food item.
Then place a “c” next to the foods that you believe are carbohydrates, a “f” next to the foods that you believe are fats, and a “p” next to the foods that you believe are proteins.
Focus Step
19.5% carb
68% fat
12% protein
Bacon egg and cheese biscuit label
27g of carbs
42g of fat
17g of protein
554 total calories
Is this a good meal supplement and why?
52% carb
31% fat
17% protein
Power Bar Label:
30g of carbs
8g of fat
10g of protein
232 total calories
Is this a good meal supplement and why?
Looking at a food?
Wheat Bread-100-c
Rice – 260-c
Bojangles B,E&C bisquit-554-f
Potato Chips-158-f
Noodles – 190 - c
Brueggers – 320 - c
Peanut Butter -190-f/p
Tomato soup-90-c
Power Bar-230-f/c/p
Coke – 140-c
Mac and Cheese-290-c/f
The Answers
"When I grow up..."
United Streaming: Goal Setting Steps


Fast Food Nation
--The Meatrix
--The Meatrix II
--The Meatrix II 1/2
--The Backwards Hamburger
Are We Truly a Fast Food Nation?
Fast Food Nation Jeopardy
Bacon egg and cheese biscuit label
27g of carbs
42g of fat
17g of protein
550 total calories
Power Bar Label:
30g of carbs
8g of fat
10g of protein
230 total calories
Team Debate
Bacon egg and cheese biscuit label
27g of carbs
42g of fat
17g of protein
550 total calories
Power Bar Label:
30g of carbs
8g of fat
10g of protein
230 total calories
Team Debate
Force Field Analysis Model
Fighting for Food Safety:
Why are we having so many food safety issues nowadays?
E Coli in Beef and Cookie Dough:
1. Wash
2. Separate
3. Cook
4. Store
5. Responsible
6. Safe
6 Steps for Food Safety
Utah Family Stats
Does Knowledge always equal positive Changes in Behavior?
Food Safety Stats
48 Million American annually (1 in 6)
128,000 hospitalizations
3,000 deaths
whole-grain breads and cereals
fruits like apples, oranges, bananas, berries, prunes, and pears
green peas
legumes (split peas, soy, lentils, etc.)

High fiber foods
Can we get them through our normal diet?
Expensive Urine…
Different phases of life…

Should we take supplements?
Vitamins or minerals have been added back into food to replace what was lost during processing
Broken down by water
Can not be stored

Water soluble
Usually due to water weight loss
Quick Weight Loss
50-70% of our total body weight
Needed for…
Waste removal
Temperature regulation
Biological/chemical processes to take place
1.5 to 3 liters per day
6-8 medium glasses
Athletes may need more
Urine color
It is possible to over do it. (hyponutremia)

Foods that contain calories, but very few vitamins of minerals
“empty” calories
3-18 years old
Age + 5
15yrs old + 5 = 20grams/day
How much Do You Need?
Indigestible part of carbohydrates
Helps with digestion
Help prevent
High cholesterol
Heart disease
Vitamins & minerals were added to the food that did not have these vitamins & minerals to begin with
Inorganic ( come from the earth)
Help us in…
In building bone
Transmitting nerve signals
Maintaining normal heart beat
Producing hormones
are stored in fat and need fat to be used
Fat soluble
Organic (found in plants & animals) compounds
Help us in…
Use calories
Maintain tissue
Regulate body functions


Non-Caloric Nutrients
Diseases Associated with Nutrition
If we currently have no problem maintaining our weight with little or no physical activity and poor eating habits, why should we be concerned?
Risk factors for developing intestinal cancers include..
Diets high in fat
Diets low in fiber
Intestinal Cancers
Type I - also called “juvenile” diabetes.
Diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood
Less common than type II (5-10% of cases)
Type II – also called “adult onset” diabetes.
Occurs later in adulthood
More common than type I (90-95% of cases)
Poor diet and lack of exercise can be a big risk factor
Type I vs. Type II
When the body does not produce enough insulin or the insulin is not recognized.
Insulin is produced in the pancreas and is responsible for taking glucose from the blood stream into the body cells

High LDL, or "bad" cholesterol and low HDL, or "good" cholesterol
Uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure)
Physical inactivity
Uncontrolled diabetes
Uncontrolled stress and anger

Risk Factors that can be controlled
Male sex
Older age
Family history of heart disease
Race (African Americans, American Indians, and Mexican Americans are more likely to have heart disease than Caucasians)

Heart Disease and Vascular Disease
risk factors out of your control.

Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system. These include diseases of the arteries and blood flow to the brain
resulting in a stroke.

Heart attack

Poor food choices

Premature death

Habitual poor food choices

Coronary artery disease
Place the following in order
Or Myocardial Infarction
When the heart muscle goes without oxygen due to lack of blood supply.
Heart Attack
A lose of bone density - especially in post menopausal women
Can be helped by a diet high in calcium and a lifestyle that includes regular exercise
Poor food choices

Habitual poor food choices


Coronary artery disease

Heart attack

Premature death
Coronary Arteries are arteries that feed the heart muscle itself
Caused by arteriosclerosis
A build of plaque inside an artery
Coronary Artery Disease
Heart disease includes a number of conditions affecting the structures or function of the heart. They can include:
Coronary artery disease
Abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias
Heart failure
Heart valve disease
Congenital heart disease
Heart muscle disease
Pericardial disease
Aorta disease
Vascular disease

Heart Disease
Leading causes of death
Questions ??
500 mg
Take no more than 500mg at a time
Calcium citrate is recommended over calcium carbonate
What about a supplement?
Layer yogurt, low-fat granola and fruit in whatever proportions you’d like.

Add some nuts and you’ve included a 4th food group.
Fantastic Fruit Parfait
Even more ideas
Use flavored yogurt as a fruit salad dressing; experiment with substituting plain yogurt for some or all of the sour cream in vegetable salad dressings
Top baked potatoes with plain yogurt; sprinkle with chives
Enjoy plain or flavored low fat yogurt
Some ideas
Make oatmeal and cream-type soups with milk instead of water
Add powdered milk to food (1 tablespoon = 50 mg calcium)
Add milk to coffee

Start with smaller portions

Eat dairy in combination with meals

Try dairy foods other than milk:
Hard cheeses have less lactose than milk:
(ex: cheddar, Swiss, parmesan)

Yogurt contains predigested lactose

Try products like: Lactaid and soy milks and cheeses
Tips for Lactose Intolerance
Source: National Osteoporosis Foundation Web site; retrieved July 2005 at http://www.nof.org
Vitamin D is manufactured in your skin following direct exposure to sun.
Amount varies with time of day, season, latitude and skin pigmentation.
10–15 minutes exposure of hands, arms and face 2–3 times/week may be sufficient (depending on skin sensitivity).
Clothing, sunscreen, window glass and pollution reduce amount produced.
Vitamin D from sunlight exposure
Helps the body more easily absorb calcium in the digestive tract.

Promotes bone formation and mineralization

Works with calcium to build a stronger more intact bone

Source: Vitamin D Overview http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/982088787.html
Why Do I Need Vitamin D?
What’s the recommendation for vitamin D?
Look for 100% juice
Orange juice and other calcium-fortified beverages 6 oz. = 200mg to 300mg (20-30% DV, varies—check label)
Calcium Sources: Fruit group
Broccoli, raw 1 cup = 90mg (9% DV)
Collard greens, cooked 1/2 cup = 200mg (20% DV)
Turnip greens, boiled 1/2 cup = 100mg (10% DV)
Calcium Sources: Vegetable group
Choose fat-free or low fat most often
Yogurt 1 cup (8 oz.) = 300mg (30% DV)
Milk 1 cup = 300mg (30% DV)
Cheese 1 ½ oz. natural/2 oz. processed = 300mg (30% DV)
Milk pudding 1/2 cup = 150mg (15% DV)
Frozen yogurt, vanilla, soft serve ½ cup = 100mg (10% DV)
Ice cream, vanilla ½ cup = 80mg (8% DV)
Soy or rice milk, calcium-fortified 1 cup = varies—check label
Calcium Sources: Milk group
Approximate % DV for foods based in part on The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
Milligrams (mg) and %DV of calcium in common foods
Orange juice 300mg
Granola bar 150mg
Cheese 300mg
Chocolate milk 300mg
Spinach 123mg
Mac and cheese +300mg
Total Calcium: 1473mg
Is it Enough Calcium?
100% DV for calcium = 1000 milligrams (mg)
So, for this label there is 30% DV of Calcium
How many mg would that be?
Do the math:
300 mg  1000 mg = 30%
Percent Daily Value is used to show how much calcium is in a food
Food and supplement labels
What’s the recommendation for calcium?
Get the recommended amount of calcium and vitamin D

Get regular weight bearing exercise

Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol
Simple Prevention Steps
The most common breaks
Source: The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
Breaks usually occur in the wrist, spine, and hip.
Being of Caucasian or Asian decent
Excessive alcohol use
Family history
Being underweight
Physical inactivity
Tobacco use
Diet deficient in Calcium and Vitamin D
Decrease in bone density

Adapted from: http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/tc/Osteopenia-Overview
Risk Factors
Loss or decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) that can progress to osteoporosis
BMD is the measurement of levels of minerals in the bone
Indicates strength and density
When BMD is very low compared to normal, it is called osteoporosis

Adapted from: http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/tc/Osteopenia-Overview
What is Osteopenia?
Osteoporosis causes weak bones
In this common disease, bones lose minerals like calcium
The bones become fragile and can break easily
Osteoporosis can strike at any age female or male
Source: The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
Bone with
Osteoporosis Overview
Source: http://www.accessexcellence.org/HHQ/qow/qow06/qow061211.html
Calcium is deposited and withdrawn from bones daily.
Half of the adult skeleton is formed during adolescence.

We need to build up a healthy bone “account” while young and continue to make “deposits” with age.

** Get as much calcium as you can now to prevent weak bones
Bones are living organs
Helps control muscle contraction
Need to build and maintain strong bone throughout life
Why Worry About Calcium?
USDA project funded through the Food Stamp Program
Nutrition Center, Department of Biology Drexel University
School District of Philadelphia
Project Sponsors
Support your bones. They support you!
Eat a healthy diet with plenty of foods high in calcium and vitamin D.

Engage in regular exercise.
Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol.
Remember to follow the prevention steps …
Calcium per serving: 243 mg.
1 cup unsweetened, frozen raspberries or frozen fruit of choice
1/2 cup 100% calcium fortified orange
3/4 cup fruit-flavored, low- or non-fat yogurt
Blend all ingredients well in blender. Enjoy!
Have It YOUR Way Smoothie
(serves 2)
Some people lack the enzyme lactase needed to digest lactose (milk sugar).

Here are some tips which may help people obtain calcium from dairy products…
Are You Lactose-intolerant?
Main dietary sources of vitamin D are:
Fortified milk (400 IU per quart)
Some fortified cereals
Cold saltwater fish (Example: salmon, halibut, herring, tuna, oysters and shrimp)
Some calcium and vitamin/mineral supplements
What about Vitamin D?
Baked beans 1 cup = 140mg (14% DV)
Salmon, canned, with edible bones 3 oz. = 180mg (18% DV)
Sardines, canned, in oil, with edible bones 3 oz. = 320mg (32% DV)
Soybeans, cooked 1 cup = 260mg (26% DV)
Tofu, firm, with calcium ½ cup = 200mg (20mg% DV); check label
Calcium Sources: Meat & Beans Group
Cereal, calcium- fortified Serving size and amount of calcium varies—check label
Calcium Sources: Grain products group
Orange juice 300mg
Granola bar 150mg

Cheese 300mg
Chocolate milk 300mg

Spinach 123mg
Mac and cheese 300mg
Granola bar and 6oz. calcium fortified 100% juice
Turkey, lettuce, tomato and cheese on whole wheat roll
Low-fat chocolate milk
Grilled chicken, ½ c spinach salad and ¾ c macaroni and cheese
Eating Calcium at Every Meal
Source: The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
Growth spurt
Calcium requirements vary by age
Start building healthy bones while young.

Healthy diet and lifestyle are important for BOTH men and women.
The good news: Osteoporosis and Osteopenia are preventable for most people!
Source: http://www.accessexcellence.org/HHQ/qow/qow06/qow061211.html and National Osteoporosis Foundation Web site; retrieved July 2005 at http://www.nof.org
1 in 2 women and 1 in 4 men over 50 will have an osteoporosis-related fracture

Hip fractures account for 300,000 hospitalization annually

1 in 5 people with a hip fracture end up in a nursing home within a year

Less than ½ of teens get recommended amount of Calcium they need for the day.
The problem in America
Source: The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth

You have never gotten enough calcium
You are not active
Poor daily nutrition
Low bone density-Osteopenia
*Remember: Prevention is the Key!
You are older than 65
You smoke
You are underweight for your height
“Red flags” that you could be at high risk for weak bones
Risk factors
Bone Mass
Source: The 2004 Surgeon General’s Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means to You at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
After mid-30’s, you begin to slowly lose bone mass. Women lose bone mass faster after menopause, but it happens to men too.
Bones can weaken early in life without a healthy diet and regular physical weight bear activities.
Some slides adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (lancaster.unl.edu) and MyPyramid.gov
Some more ideas
Serve milk-based desserts (puddings, tapioca, frozen yogurt, custard, ice cream). Limit fat and sugar.
Try chocolate milk.
8-oz. has only 2 - 7 mg caffeine.
Average glass provides only 60 more calories than unflavored milk.
Make instant hot cocoa with milk, not water.
over 70
up to 50
400 IU
200 IU
600 IU
Daily vitamin D needs in International Units (IU)
You need more vitamin D as you age
I just don’t like milk
Fiber helps lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. This help reduce your risk for heart disease.
What is going on?
Colon Cancer
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)

Use “Nutrition Facts” label to help choose whole grain products with a higher % Daily Value (%DV) for fiber.
The %DV for fiber is a good clue to the amount of whole grain in the product.
“Nutrition Facts” label and grains
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
Whole wheat flour, water,
brown sugar …
Ingredients: Wheat flour, water, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, wheat bran …
Answer: has WHOLE wheat as the first ingredient!
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
Choose foods with a whole grain ingredient listed first on the label’s ingredient list.
Label Reading
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
Enriched: B vitamins and iron are added back. But you still lose the fiber
Refined Grains: the bran and germ were removed (you lose B vitamins, iron, fiber)
Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
The food has to be made from the entire grain seed (or kernel)
The kernel consists of:
So what is a whole grain?
USDA project funded through the Food Stamp Program
Nutrition Center, Department of Biology Drexel University
School District of Philadelphia
Project Sponsors
Whole Grains & Fiber
Recommendations: Males (14-50 years old) = ~38 grams/day
Females (9-50 years old) = ~25 grams/day
Fiber promotes good health:
Digestive System:
Helps relieve constipation
Helps lower your risk of diverticulitis and colon cancer
Heart Health:
Can help reduce blood cholesterol levels
The Whole Grain Kernel
Then we’ll look at foods that are good sources of fiber
Let’s concentrate on Whole Grains
Simple Sugars

2. Complex Carbohydrates (starches)
Provide energy
Blood clot
Dead muscle cells
How it really looks
Which of the foods above have fiber?
Simple Sugars

2. Complex Carbohydrates (starches)
Provide energy
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
Ingredients: Wheat flour, water, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, wheat bran …

Color is not an indication of a whole grain.
Bread can be brown because of molasses or other added ingredients.
Read the ingredient list to see if grain is a WHOLE grain.
Color and whole grains
Make at least half of your grains whole grain.
Eat six “1 ounce-equivalents” of grain products daily (for a 2,000 calorie diet):
Adapted from University of Nebraska Lincoln (www.lancaster.unl.edu)
Ingredients: Whole wheat flour, water, brown sugar…
Ingredients: Wheat flour, water, high fructose corn syrup, molasses, wheat bran …
Which is the whole grain bread?
Full transcript