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FDSCI 101 W15 Day 14

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Richard Datwyler

on 16 June 2015

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Transcript of FDSCI 101 W15 Day 14

Atomic structure and Bonding
Dr. Carothers and his team hypothesized that amides make stronger connections than esters based on their melting points.
He expected that a synthetic fiber made of polyamide would be stronger than polyester.
After much experimentation to figure out how to make the polyamide, this new material matched his expectations.
The work and investment was worthwhile because he had a good hypothesis and understanding of the structure of compounds.
Nylon formation demo

Making Nylon

Why do we care whether a bond is covalent or ionic?

Bonding patterns give us information about how molecules interact with each other.
Non-polar = hydrophobic
Polar = hydrophilic
Ionic = hydrophilic

Bond Properties

the branch of science that deals with the identification of the substances of which matter is composed;

Chemistry

Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons.
What would happen if the electrons were not evenly shared?

Consider an H-F molecule. To which atom would the bonding electrons be more attracted?

What would this do to the bond?

Sharing Electrons

Covalent Bonds

Examples of atomic compounds: Metals, diamonds

Particulate Model of Matter

Nucleotides consist of a carbohydrate, a phosphate, and a nitrogen-containing base.


Molecule Classes:
Nucleotides

Usually have a carbon ring: Sugars, Starches, Fiber, etc.


Molecule Classes: Carbohydrates

Nonpolar (pure) covalent
Equal sharing

Polar covalent
Unequal sharing

Ionic
Electron stealing

Types of Bonding

“If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that...all things are made of atoms.”


Richard Feynman (1918-1988)
Nobel Prize in Physics 1965

Lipids consist of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Long chains: Fats, Oils, Wax, etc.

Molecule Classes:
Lipids

In 1930, a research group under the direction of Wallace Carothers at the DuPont company produced a new synthetic fiber based on a chain of esters (polyester).
These fibers had a melting point that was too low to be useful.
What would be a hypothesis that could help Dr. Carothers?
What observations would you expect based on that hypothesis?

Making Nylon

Amino Acids consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
and nitrogen.

Molecule Classes:
Amino Acids

and the use of these processes to form new substances.
the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact, combine, and change;
The forces between particles is related to the structure of the particles.
These inter-particular forces determine many properties of the substance.
Different particles interact with each other in different ways.
Chemists think of substances as made up of lots of little particles.
These particles are either molecules, ions, or atoms.
Examples of molecular compounds: Lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, DNA
Examples of ionic compounds: Salts, ceramics, soap
Side-chain determines how the protein will fold.
Building blocks of proteins.
Really stable, easier to open than a covalent bond
Bases make specific pairing with strong forces
Building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Review question 1.
Larger atoms have a larger ratio of neutrons to protons, this is because:
A) They need even more mass because of their size.
B) The electron charge must be balanced completely.
C) The nuclear repulsive force is much greater in large atoms.
D) They are radioactive.
E) The more protons have captured more electrons

Review Question 2
Which of the following is not a component of a 'fair test'?
A) Control group and control variables
B) Dependent and independent variables
C) Controlling experimental bias
D) Statistically accurate sample size
E) Blind and double blind experiments

Why would Dr. Feynman say that?
Polar, highly soluble in water, easily chained together.
Carbohydrates consist of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Which is an example of an Ionic compound?
A) Trans fatty acids
B) Sugar
C) Soap
D) Iron
E) Coal
Which is not classified as a molecular compound?
A) Lipids
B) Salts
C) Amino acids
D) Sugars
E) RNA

Preparation review
What company was interested in make 'videos' of single atoms?
A) Microsoft
B) HP
C) Apple
D) IBM
E) Cannon

One thing noted in the video was the amount of atoms needed to store magnetic information, how many atoms did they say was needed
A) only 1
B) dozens
C) hundreds
D) thousands
E) millions
Full transcript