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Music in rehabilitation of memory and learning deficits
Transcript of Music in rehabilitation of memory and learning deficits
S. Samson. Moderators:
S. Kotz, K. Overy Moderators:
S. Samson Moderator:
A. Halpern, Moderators:
B. Tillmann, E. Bigand Wp 3 Unilateral neglect is a neuropsychological condition that typically results from damage to the right hemisphere. Patients exhibit by loss of awareness, perception and attention on the contralesional side of their body and environment, affecting their ability to function in daily life. Traditional rehabilitation methods (eg those based on the training of visual scanning) have been limited in their success, motivating the need to develop novel approaches to treatment. A music-training based intervention may hold special promise for the condition, since playing a musical instrument requires visuo-spatial attention
and action in space and can be highly motivating to patients. This talk will describe a preliminary study which investigates the effects of a four week musical training intervention on visual attentional function in two patients with unilateral
neglect. The results point to both short term and long term improvements
on classical tests of attentional performance. Possible mechanisms
for these improvements will be discussed, along with
consideration of how to develop
the work in the future. Can music increase spatial awareness in visual neglect? Lauren Stewart Lauren Stewart is Reader in Psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London, where she co-directs the MSc programme in Music, Mind and Brain. She studied Physiological Sciences followed by an MSc in Neuroscience, both at Balliol College, before undertaking doctoral studies at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience (UCL), followed by postdoctoral research at Newcastle University and Harvard Medical School. She took up her current lectureship at Goldsmiths in 2006 and in 2008 was awarded the Experimental Psychology Society Prize for distinguished research at an early career stage. She has received grants from the Economic and Social Research Council and the Leverhulme Trust and is associate editor of Psychomusicology: Music, Mind and Brain. Bio Implicit learning (IL) is the acquisition of knowledge without intention to learn. Numerous studies have shown both preserved and impaired IL capacities in different groups of patients, such as patients with dyslexia, aphasia or basal ganglia lesions. In the first part of the talk, a critical overview of the studies investigating IL capacities for these patient populations will be given, aiming for an overall framework to further our understanding of IL and its underlying neural correlates. The second part of the talk will focus on the presentation of our planned IL study in patients with lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus (involving Broca’s area). According to the Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, 1976), external regularities entrain internal oscillators that guide attention over time, helping listeners to develop temporal expectations, which influence processing of future events. The investigation of artificial grammar learning in patients with inferior frontal lesions aims to reveal whether the temporal presentation of artificial grammar helps to develop temporal expectations that influence positively the perception of future events and thus boost IL. Implicit learning in patient populations Tatiana Selchenkova Tatiana Selchenkova is a PhD student at Auditory Cognition and Psychoacoustics team (head Barbara Tillmann), Lyon Neuroscience Research Center. Her research interests are implicit learning, music and language processing. Her PhD aims to investigate how rhythmic regularities can boost implicit learning in healthy and patient populations. Bio We were interested if differences in brain activity during auditory tasks before the start of the training were related to these differences in subsequent learning rates. Indeed, stronger activity in left premotor and inferior frontal cortex during mental imagery and stronger activity in right Heschl’s gyrus during listening to melodies before training predicted higher learning rates later on. Left premotor/inferior frontal cortex is involved in both mental imagery and auditory-motor mapping, whereas right Heschl’s gyrus is important for fine-grained pitch discrimination. Musical training engages the auditory-sensorimotor network as well as higher order attention and cognition networks. We have previously demonstrated that both short- and long-term musical training have the potential to alter neuronal correlates of auditory perception and cognition, and that the multimodal nature of the training might be a crucial factor for learning and plasticity in the auditory cortex. However, effects of instrumental training on higher- The results of this piano training study show that training modulates auditory-motor coactivation during auditory perception, and is also relevant for tasks that are more abstract in nature (i.e. without an overt sensory or motor component) such as mental imagery. However, the predictive value of activity in premotor and auditory areas even before training for later learning rates also highlight the
important influence of pre-existing inter-individual variability for
auditory-motor learning. Sibylle Herholz received her diploma in psychology in 2006 from the University of Düsseldorf (Germany) with a thesis on false memories in recognition. In 2009 she received her PhD in cognitive neuroscience from the University of Münster (Germany) under the supervision of Christo Pantev. For her dissertation she studied the effects of short- and long-term musical training on behavioral and neuronal correlates of auditory processing using MEG and behavioral techniques. In a two-year post-doctoral fellowship funded by the DFG with Robert Zatorre at the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) she studied the effects of musical training on neuronal and behavioral correlates of auditory perception and imagery using fMRI. She was also involved in a collaboration project with Andrea Halpern (Bucknell University) on memory and musical imagery, and in collaboration projects with colleagues of University of Münster on expertise and training effects on music and language processing and on short-term musical training in stroke recovery. Since 2012, she is working at the German Research Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany. Bio Functional brain plasticity
induced by musical practice - training effects versus individual predisposition Sibylle Herholz This talk focuses on the influence of music training on higher-order cognitive abilities and on social cognitive skills, specifically emotion recognition. After reviewing evidence of benefits on executive functioning, memory, and language, we will present our work showing links between music training and enhanced emotion recognition abilities in
the auditory domain, namely in music and voice. Recent findings indicating that
music training may offset age-related decline in perceptual and cognitive
functions will also be discussed. Making music is one of the most challenging and complex of human activities.
It poses very high demands on multiple systems, including perception, attention, learning, memory, motor, multimodal integration, processing of syntax and meaning, as well as emotion. Studying people who underwent systematic training in music has provided unique insights into the plastic properties of the neurocognitive system, i.e., how the mind and brain changes as a result of experience. Given the power of music to drive plasticity in neural networks underlying important functions, it is conceivable that it can be effectively used in
clinical contexts for interventions in different kinds of neurological
and psychiatric disorders. Such a promising application will
benefit from further systematic investigations. How can musical practice influence cognitive and emotion-related abilities? César Lima César Lima (born 1984, Portugal) is currently a postdoctoral research scientist at the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience – University College London and at the University of Porto. His research focuses on the behavioral and neural aspects of emotion communication, particularly in the auditory domain. He has been examining how we perceive emotions in different kinds of nonverbal auditory signals, including vocalizations (e.g., laughter, cries), speech prosody, and music. A special interest in on how emotion perception (in these signals) may be influenced by factors such as musical practice, normal ageing, and neurological conditions. His studies incorporate methods from experimental psychology, acoustics, neuropsychology, and magnetic resonance imaging. Previously, César Lima completed a degree in Psychology at University of Porto (2007), followed by a Ph.D. at the same university (2011). He also worked as a clinical neuropsychologist in the Department of Neurology of Hospital de S. João, Portugal, with patients with neurodegenerative disorders (2006-2007). He has been receiving continuous funding from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. E-mail: email@example.com Bio order auditory cognition such as mental auditory imagery are still unclear. Also, although the role of inter-individual variability in neuroimaging has recently gained more attention, not much is known about pre-existing factors that might predict learning success in musical training. In the present study, we investigated the effects of six weeks of musical training on auditory imagery and auditory perception in healthy young adults without previous musical experience, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that six weeks of piano training led to significiant increases in activity in a fronto-parietal-cerebellar network during auditory perception and auditory mental imagery of familiar melodies. However, learning rates during the piano training varied strongly across participants. Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s are characterized by impairments in many aspects of memory. Contrary to some popular belief, I show that learning new melodies is as impaired as new learning for other kinds of material. However, early-stage patients retain access to and enjoy their store of previously music. I discuss these findings with respect to understanding the specific course of memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease as well as the ways that music
and art can be used to enrich the lives of patients and
their loved ones. Memory for Familiar and
Unfamiliar Music in Alzheimer’s Disease Andrea Halpern Since receiving her PhD in Psychology from Stanford University, Professor Halpern has been a faculty member in the Psychology Department at Bucknell University, an undergraduate liberal arts university in Pennsylvania. She has spent sabbatical leaves in Montreal, Boston, Los Angeles, and Dallas, in addition to her current sabbatical in London as a Leverhulme Visiting Professor. She studies memory for nonverbal information, cognitive neuroscience of music perception, and cognitive aging. She also studies how people suffering from dementing diseases like Alzheimer’s disease can process and enjoy both music and art. In addition to teaching cognition courses, she enjoys mentoring undergraduate researchers, for which she received a national award in 2004. She has received grants from several US federal and private agencies, including the Grammy Foundation, and currently serves as President of the Society for Music Perception and Cognition. In her spare time she enjoys singing choral and chamber music, and traveling to see wildlife in endangered habitats. Bio Our experiments reveal the involuntary nature of music-evoked autobiographical memories in AD patients. They also shed light on the power of music as a memory enhancer in clinical rehabilitation of these patients. Until recently, little was known about the memories and emotions that are often
evoked when hearing a piece of familiar music in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) patients.
To investigate this issue we conducted a series of studies. In the first one, autobiographical recall of AD patients was assessed under three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) after being exposed to the Vivaldi’s Four Seasons, and (c) after being exposed to music that was chosen by the patients. Autobiographical recall was higher in the Chosen than in the Four Seasons condition, and both were higher than in silence. In another replication, autobiographical recall of AD patients was tested in two conditions: in silence and after being exposed to their own chosen music. Relatively to memories evoked in silence, memories evoked after music exposure were more specific,
triggering more emotional content and impact on mood, and retrieved faster. Music-evoked autobiographical
memory in Alzheimer’s Disease Mohamad El Haj Mohamad El Haj obtained a Psychologist degree from the Lebanese University (Lebanon). He continued his studies in France following a Master in Cognitive Psychology in the University of Bordeaux. He was awarded with a Ph.D. degree in Neuropsychology by the University of Angers.
Currently, He is filling a one-year term teaching assistant position in the University of Lille.
His main research interest is at the intersection of memory and music and its implication for clinical populations such as Alzheimer’s Disease. Bio Sylvain Clement The Musical Serial Span:
a clinical tool for assessing
musical short-term memory in musicians Auditory binding :
imaged encoding of songs Irene Alonso Cognitive, emotional and behavioural problems are prevalent for people with acquired
brain injury (ABI). These problems often coexist and may be persistent in the longer term, limiting the survivors’ access to social participation and activities, and reducing engagement in rehabilitation. Objectives: This presentation will outline a structured treatment protocol that addresses the attention and memory deficits, and emotional needs of ABI survivors. The presentation will draw from a doctoral study that examined whether brief group music therapy can address cognitive functional gains and emotional needs of people with ABI in a community setting. Treatment methods that address both cognitive impairments and emotional needs can be effective and facilitate emotional adjustment in community rehabilitation following ABI. Participants reported cognitive and emotional benefits from the treatment. Clinical examples will be presented with selected data to show the effectiveness of the treatment protocol. Participants were enrolled in a 16-week program of group music therapy. The treatment method involved the use of musical attention and memory exercises to prime the brain for a structured songwriting exercise. The songwriting exercise utilised a specific method broken down into stages and focused on emotional adjustment to life with ABI. The treatment concluded with the performance and recording of the songs written by the ABI survivors. The doctoral study, which explored the effectiveness of this treatment protocol, used a mixed methods research approach involving (1) a repeated measures design to measure changes in attention, memory, mood state and emotional needs during the brief treatment; (2) semi-structured interviews to examine the participants’
subjective experiences and opinions of the treatment; and (3) analysis of song lyrics to examine emotional adjustment. Analysis of the data included: analysis of variance to determine the statistical significance
of the quantitative data; interpretative phenomenological analysis to probe the interviews data; and
thematic analysis to examine the song lyrics. Musical attention and memory training
as a primer for learning and engagement
in songwriting for rehabilitation Jonathan Pool Jonathan Pool qualified as a music therapist at Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge, UK in 2008. His clinical practice has included working with children, young people, and adults with learning disabilities; and adults with acquired brain injury. In 2010 he was awarded a PhD studentship to study the effects of brief group music therapy in addressing cognitive functional gains and emotional needs of adults with acquired brain injury. The thesis is due to be completed in early 2013. Jonathan has presented at international conferences including the World Federation of Music Therapy World Congress in Seoul in 2011 and International Brain Injury Association World Congress in Edinburgh in 2012. He has articles published in journals such as the Arts in Psychotherapy and The Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. Bio Although musical interventions have recently gained increasing popularity as a
non-pharmacological treatment in dementia, there is still insufficient evidence for their
effectiveness. To investigate this issue, a single-center randomized controlled trial was conducted
in forty-eight patients with Alzheimer’s disease or mixed dementia to compare the effects of music
versus cooking interventions on emotional, cognitive, functional and behavioral domains, and professional caregiver distress. Each intervention lasted four weeks (two one-hour sessions a week). Multi-component evaluations (with blind assessors) were conducted before, during and after the interventions to assess their short and long-term effects (up to four weeks post interventions). The findings revealed that both interventions were effective in improving the patients’ emotional state
and decreasing the severity of their behavioral disorders and caregiver distress, but there was no
significant benefit on the cognitive and functional (autonomy and quality of life) status. Although
both interventions showed short-term benefits (during the intervention period), music elicited
longer-lasting effects (up to four weeks post interventions) on behavioral functioning and
caregiver distress. These results demonstrate the efficacy of two pleasant
non-pharmacological treatments in patients with moderate to severe dementia.
Furthermore, the findings highlight the promising potential for such
interventions to improve the well being of patients living in
residential care, and to reduce caregiver distress. Musical interventions in patients with moderate to severe dementia Pauline Narme Pauline Narme has received her professional license as a neuropsychologist from Caen-Normandy University (France) in 2008, then started her PhD in neurosciences at the Picardy Jules Verne University in Amiens (supervised by Pr O. Godefroy). Pauline’s research interests focused on executive control, emotional and social cognitive processes (face processing, emotion recognition, theory of mind, empathy) in normal aging and in several neurological diseases (Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Stroke). After obtaining her PhD in 2011, she held a postdoctoral position at the department of psychology at the University of Lille – North of France under the supervision of Pr S. Samson. During this postdoctoral position, she developed interest on non-pharmacological therapies and was involved in a randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of musical interventions in patients with dementia. Since September 2012, she works as an assistant professor at the Institute of Psychology (Paris Descartes University; research in neuropsychology of aging). Bio I present here a number of case studies and outline what lay music practices occur, discuss what and who drives these experiences and explore the significance such practices have on re-vivifying or sustaining identity through remembered and current emotional and social connections. Furthermore I consider what
forms of memory have a restored vitality through musical activity and
reflect upon what can be learned from existing lay practices as
potential coping mechanisms. Across the dementia spectrum both the severity of symptoms and the speed of
decline vary considerably, however the majority of academic research relating to music and dementia has tended to focus on individuals at the more advanced stages residing in long term care. Moreover the literature tends to centre on music ‘administered’ by professionals, whether health, caring or research professionals. My interest is the natural place of music in the everyday lives of people with moderate dementia who remain living in the community with familial or spousal carers. Music in everyday life;
Real world examples of individuals
living with moderate dementia Elizabeth Dennis Liz is in the third year of her Sociology PhD at the University of Exeter. Her research, under the supervision of Prof Tia DeNora, focuses on the natural place of music in the everyday lives of individuals living with early to moderate dementia who live in the community. Using an ethnographic methodology Liz is incorporating participant observations and semi-structured interviews to assist her understanding of the social processes that occur with regard to music listening and or participation with this cohort.
Her interest in dementia was stimulated during an MSc in Music in the Community at the University of Edinburgh where she investigated caregiver singing and background music with individuals at an advanced stage of dementia residing in long-term care.
Her undergraduate degree was in music, specialising in flute performance. Bio Lucy Forde will present her experiences of delivering creative music projects with groups of people over the age of 60. Lucy has delivered a variety of projects working with a broad spectrum of participants ranging from people who were recently retired to people who were over 90 years old. The presentation will focus on the Gateway Housing project, which involved two groups of residents in sheltered housing schemes in East London. This project was delivered over two years with the aim of providing an inclusive and creative environment where residents
could develop their music skills through working with
instruments, singing and exploring their own creativity
through song writing. Creative music
projects with the over 60s Lucy Forde Lucy Forde is the Director of SCO Connect which is the Scottish Chamber Orchestra's Education and Outreach Department. Previous to this role she has worked as a musician, composer, creative workshop leader and artistic director. She has worked with a range of orchestras, music conservatoires and arts organisations as well as music education authorities in the private and state education sector in the UK and internationally. Her main interests are in music and health, music education and outreach and cross-cultural and cross-arts collaboration.
Organisations she has worked with include: Music In Hospitals, Music for Life (Music and Dementia Project), Barbican Guildhall Creative Learning, The Royal College of Music, The London Philharmonic Orchestra, The London Symphony Orchestra, The Philharmonia Orchestra, The Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Sinfonia Viva Orchestra, The Gewandhaus Orchestra, The Hanover Band, The West of England Philharmonic Orchestra, The British Council, The Wigmore Hall, Norfolk and Norwich Festival, The Endellion String Quartet, The New London Chamber Ensemble, Music in Prisons, The Helen Bamber Foundation and Create (Arts). In 2009 she undertook research into North Indian Classical music and Indian approaches to music teaching as a Finzi Scholar. Bio Marianne Hartmann Understanding behaviour
through music and attitudes Bio Marc Leman Bio A domain-general processing of auditory rhythm may allow us to consider how musical
rhythm can be a useful tool in speech rehabilitations. Rhythmical regularity can enhance the processing of speech (Gordon et al., 2011; Rothermich et al., 2012; Schmidt-Kassow & Kotz, 2009), as well as in a cross-domain context (music to speech) (Cason & Schön, 2012) and is a common tool in speech re/habilitations (Thaut, 2005).
In a previous experiment, we have shown that musical rhythmic priming (providing listeners with a rhythmical cue) enhances the phonological processing of words (Cason & Schön, 2012). These results provide further evidence for the effect of attentional orienting on auditory perception (Jones & Boltz, 1989; Quené & Port, 2005; Jones et al., 2002). In a more recent experiment, listeners were provided with metrical contexts (musical rhythm). This prime
gave listeners implicit information about what prosodic patterning to expect (in the target sentence which followed). We measured behavioural (reaction time) and EEG
correlates of enhanced processing. Preliminary results suggest that a target sentence
fitting the metrical context of a rhythmical prime is processed more readily
than in incongruent meter conditions. In addition to this, it seems that
audiomotor engagement (compared to auditory engagement alone)
further enhances this effect of musical rhythm, probably by further
consolidating the rhythmic representation of the prime. Musical rhythms
to enhance speech processing:
speech re/habilitation contexts Nia Cason Séverine Samson Assessment of
musical abilities in children
with Specific Language Impairment Clinical and healthy population evidence seems to support the naïve claim
that music boosts memory functions. Some of this evidence comes from studies
with patients suffering from memory impairments, such as Alzheimer's Disease or Multiple Sclerosis. Another set arises from studies with aphasic patient, where music
is used as a tool to facilitate word re-learning. Although there is huge variability in the methods and therapies available, a common factor in all studies is the interaction of the patient and a therapist. This social component may represent a possible confounding factor as music and social interaction share common features on at least two levels: on one level, a social component related to an increase of arousal could well explain positive results. On a second level, both music and social interaction are heavily based on the ability to correctly perceive and integrate time related features. In this talk I will briefly review studies conducted on the effect of music in clinical populations, especially focusing on music treatments for aphasia. Following this, I will describe a paradigm we developed to systematically disentangle the role
of social interaction from the one of music, thus paving the way for a
more accurate interpretation of the mechanisms underlying music
therapy. In a first step, we tested this approach in healthy
participants demonstrating how social interaction can
drive temporal patterns of interaction in
a dyadic task. The role of music
in word re-learning in aphasia:
What's the role of the therapist? Laura Verga Laura Verga obtained a M.Sc. degree in Cognitive Neuroscience from Vita-Salute San Raffaele University (Milan) in 2010. The topic of the thesis was the investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of melodic and harmonic components; the study was conducted with fMRI and MRI brain acquisition on expert pianists. Since November 2010 Laura joined the Europe Brain and Music (EBRAMUS) consortium and is currently a PhD student in Leipzig at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Sonja Kotz. The PhD project is aimed at investigating whether music and social interaction can boost word learning. More specifically, Laura conducted behavioral and fMRI studies in healthy participants by using a novel paradigm based on contextual word learning and tailored specifically to allow interaction between two people. Bio Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) is an emerging optical imaging
technique that can measure brain activity by monitoring cortical oxygenation changes in Oxy- and Deoxy-Hemoglobin. It is portable, non-invasive and it has good motion tolerance. Over the past decade, these features have led NIRS to be used in a wide range of applications in cognitive neuroscience. So far, it has been applied to various research domains in healthy subjects and different clinical populations. After introducing the principles of the technique, in this talk I will focus on NIRS applications in the field of memory, stressing on methods and clinical applications. I will also
present the work we are currently doing in our lab in order to study
the effect of music on episodic memory, monitoring by NIRS the
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the encoding phase of a
source memory paradigm. I will conclude highlighting
main advantages and limits of this technique and
possible future trends in
NIRS applications. Near-Infrared
Spectroscopy: an emerging tool
for research in cognitive psychology Laura Ferreri Laura Ferreri obtained a M.Sc. degree in Cognitive Neuroscience from San Raffaele University in Milan. During her thesis she has been analyzing EEG recordings of expert musicians, investigating the role of empathic and mirroring mechanisms during an ensemble performance.
In november 2011 she joined the EBRAMUS project and she became a PhD student at LEAD (Laboratory for Research on Learning and Development) in Dijon under the supervision of Professor Emmanuel Bigand.
She is currently working with Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) in order to study the effects of music stimulation in Alzheimer's patients and deaf children. In particular, during the first year of PhD, she focused on the interaction between music and episodic memory, trying to clarify if a musical context during the encoding of verbal stimuli could help the subsequent recalling of such material. Bio Effortful imagination, or mental simulation, is used increasingly in the rehabilitation
of a range of functions, conceptually based on the neural overlap between simulated
and actual perception or action. Examples can be found in movement rehabilitation, but also (although to a much lesser extent) in memory, where visual imagery has been shown to increase prospective memory function by strengthening the memory trace. Although music imagination is only anecdotally reported to be used in a clinical rehabilitation setting, the considerable overlap in neural activation that is seen between perception and imagination suggests that imagination may potentially serve as an alternative for listening to actual stimuli in music interventions. However, some patient populations show deficits in imagery, preventing utilization of imagery techniques. Additionally, even in neurologically healthy subjects, imagery ability appears to vary, although specific
training has been suggested to be helpful. Finally, there is considerable disagreement
on the phenomenology and terminology, while imagery itself appears to be
a necessary element of other cognitive processes, such as a range of memory
functions, as well as the implicit prediction of action outcome.
This, in combination with the reliance on self-report for some
level of experimental control, significantly complicates
research into this area. Imagery as a rehabilitation tool Rebecca Schaefer Rebecca Schaefer is currently a Marie Curie Fellow at the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development (IMHSD) in Edinburgh, UK. After completing an Msc in Clinical Neuropsychology at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and an Msc in Music Cognition at Keele University, UK, both focusing on aspects of perceptual organisation of music, she obtained a PhD at the Donders Intitute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior of Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands, focusing on developing cognitive tasks for Brain-Computer Interfaces, and specifically investigating the use of imagined music. Subsequently, she worked on a telehealth application for speech therapy at the Maartenskliniek rehabilitation clinic in Nijmegen, before moving to Edinburgh to investigate the use of music imagination in movement rehabilitation. Bio Thursday 17th Friday 18th Nia Cason received BSc Neuroscience at Cardiff university, studied MSc 'Music Mind and Brain', started PhD with EBRAMUS (Europe Brain and Music) in October 26th 2010. She is interested in how musical rhythm can enhance speech functions in speech disfluent populations and the relationship between rhythm processing in speech and music and play music. Bio th th 13h20 Irene Alonso is a PhD student at the Neuropsychology and Auditory Cognition Laboratory at University of Lille. She carries out her research at the Research Centre of the Institute for Brain and Spine in Paris (CRICM), in collaboration with the Epilepsy Unit from La Salpêtrière Hospital. She obtained a Master Degree with clinical itinerary at University of Oviedo, Spain. During that time, she made an internship at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig, where she delve into MRI methods. As a violist, she is interested in the interface between music and neuroscience and its applications to education, social, and especially clinical settings. Currently, she is using neuropsychology and neuroimaging methods to assess the effect of medial temporal lobe lesions in auditory processing. She focus on the organization of neural networks involving memory with music and verbal material, learning transfer between this two domains, and emotion-mediated memory effects driven by music that could potentially contribute to cognitive rehabilitation. Bio Bio To understand the role of the Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) in episodic memory emergence functional specialization of its structures has been proposed. According to the Binding of Item and Context model (BIC) (Diana et al., 2007) item/object features information is process in the perirhinal cortex, whereas contextual information is processed in the parahippocampal cortex. But to reach a successful memory trace, all that needs to be bounded in the hippocampus as an event. These theories and experiments have a main impact for clinical populations with memory disorders such as Temporal Lobe Epilepsy patients. However, these hypotheses are mainly based in the visual domain (Staresina & Davachi, 2009). To adapt them to the auditory domain, I propose to test binding of
lyrics, (as an auditory object), with melodies (as the context) to create and encode songs
(as the event). To do that, participants will use an imagery strategy (Halpern, 2012), such that
they will have to “sing in their heads” the songs for encoding. Such strategies have been used
in rehabilitation contexts. BOLD responses will be measured during encoding of unitized
(song) and non-unitized (lyrics + melody) songs and successful vs unsuccessful
recognition will be contrasted. This experiment will seed light on the possibility
to associate that information by means of imagery and furthermore the
potential role of music to improve the recognition of sentences
if they are embedded in a song. Neurosurgery can be proposed to professional musicians for treating brain tumors or epilepsy. The evaluation of the cost-benefit ratio of the neurosurgical intervention should take into account the specific importance of the musical skills for these patients. Here we propose an analogue of the classical digit span measure for assessing musical short-term memory of musicians. For this purpose, 2 to 9 tone sequences that were either tonal or atonal. Participants were asked to reproduce the tone sequences by singing. Several measures of performance can be computed from the analysis of the sung productions, including the Musical Serial Span measure that can be directly compared
to the digit span of the WAIS-III battery. We found that while
non-musicians showed floor level performance in this task,
the musical span measure seems sensitive for exploring
musical short term memory in skilled musicians and thus
might be a useful tool for neuropsychological
evaluation such patients with excellent
musical skills. Séverine Samson is a cognitive neuropsychologist and a professor of Psychology at the University of Lille in France. She is specialized in the neuropsychological and peri-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients. Her research focuses on the role of the temporal lobes in memory, perception and emotion in musical as compared to non-musical domains using methods taken from psychophysics, cognitive psychology and neuroimagery. More specifically, she is studying the cerebral substrate of auditory cognition and of musical memory and its relationship with emotions across different cerebral pathologies of vascular, degenerative, developmental as well as epileptic origins using fundamental and applied research. Bio Specific Language Impairment (SLI), also known as « developmental dysphasia », is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder that is diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop 2007). Although abilities to perceive and produce verbal information has been extensively investigated in SLI children, relatively little is known about their non verbal auditory abilities. To address this issue, a group of children with SLI and a control group matched for chronological age were tested for their abilities in both music perception and singing (pitch matching test and song production). Our findings indicated that a high proportion of children with
SLI showed severe impairments in musical abilities, in both perceptual
and productive tasks, raising questions about a common origin of
verbal and non verbal auditory impairments in SLI children. The music synchronization framework (DJogger) developed at IPEM is a collection of tools that make use of body movement to dynamically select music and adapt the tempo of the music to the user's pace in real-time. The framework supports different types of mappings: fixed tempo music close to the users' gait frequency, adaptive tempo music and phase synchronised music. Each mapping has its own specific purposes in different domains. Experiments with fixed tempo music has given an insight in the musical prerequisites necessary for entrainment to occur. Adaptive tempo experiments have shown a substantial influence on the subjects motivation and emotional state in comparison with random music. Phase synchronised music forces synchronization
upon the user so that each footfall automatically coincides with a beat. Use of this mapping
has shown that there are no significant ergogenic differences for athletes running on synchronised versus random music, in contrast with current literature. Finally, all
proposed mappings have a beneficial effect on the motor control of Parkinson
patients, comparable with typical metronome cues. Music has motivational
advantages in daily usage for patients in their rehabilitation process,
potentially reducing the risk of falling and freezing
during walking. Bart Moens
for rehabilitation and health Marc Leman is Methusalem research professor in systematic musicology and the director of IPEM at Ghent University. He is a pioneer in embodied music cognition research and together with his team, he explores music technology in fields related to medicine, rehabilitation and sports. He has published more than 250 articles, and several books. Bart Moens holds a Master's Degree in Computer Science from Ghent University. In 2009 he started a PhD in computer science and musicology at IPEM, focussing on interactive auditory feedback during walking or running. He is currently testing the interactive system in different domains such as rehabilitation, sport physiology and entrainment. Bio References Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: an emerging tool for research in cognitive psychology
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Functional brain plasticity induced by musical practice - training effects versus individual predisposition
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Simmons-Stern, N. R., Budson, A. E., & Ally, B. A. (2010). Music as a Memory Enhancer in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuropsychologia, 48(10), 3164 – 3167. 13h40 14h00 14h20 15h40 16h00 16h20 16h40 09h00 09h20 09h40 10h50 10h30 11h10 13h20 13h40 14h00 15h40 15h40 Sylvain Clément is an assistant professor in Cognitive Psychology at University of Lille 3 since 2003. contact: firstname.lastname@example.org References Musical interventions in patients with moderate to severe dementia
Pauline Narme, Sylvain Clément, Nathalie Ehrlé, Loris Schiaratura, Sylvie Vachez, Bruno Courtaigne, Frédéric Munsch & Séverine Samson
Clément, S., Tonini, A., Khatir, F., Schiaratura, L.,, Samson, S. (2012). Short and longer term effects of musical intervention in severe Alzheimer’s Disease. Music Perception, 29 (5), 533-541. Persons suffering from Alzheimer disease or other related diseases, function mostly within an emotional system.
Essentially because the disease has altered brain functions related to structural functions such as the perception of time,
space, recent memory as well as the capacity to logical reasoning in general. Another factor favouring this functioning
within an emotional system is the mere fragility of the person due to multiple losses such as physical abilities, home, social status and loved ones. This to only name a few of the losses related to old age.The professional attitude of the care giver
should be to remain functioning in a rational system, without trying to draw the patient into the same rational system. This only leads to unavoidable conflicts and can even enhance an unwanted behaviour from the patient, which in most cases is merely a reaction to defend their fragility of not understanding. As a care-giver, to react with own emotions, can become destructive for both parties. Anger felt for a patient “who does it on purpose!”, fear from the patient who scolds and lashes out, pity for the sad crying all day, powerlessness for those who yell all day and helplessness and for the dying. This can eventually lead to ill-treatment concerning patients a burn-out concerning care-givers. The idea is to understand the functioning of the patient, to relate to the emotional system of the patient using adequate tools. This is where music comes into the picture in a very handy way. Music involves a very broad spectrum of the capacities of the brain, regardless of any structural damage. It can allow the care-giver to pick up the musicality of the tone of voice of a patient, thus having an
idea of which emotion is being expressed. Instead of confronting the emotion by not allowing it, to on the contrarily
allow it by singing it out with an adequate song. By doing so, the patient can be relieved of an emotional tension in a
safe way for both parties, avoiding conflict. A fit of anger can be accompanied by a march-song and lead to relief
and even laughter. A sadness of a lady understanding for the first time every day that her mother is dead can be
relieved by singing together a sad song for her mother. This opposed to wanting the lady to perform a
complicated mathematical sum aiming at reasoning her into understanding that if she herself is 92 years
old, how old would be her mother? A yell can be analysed in a musical way in order to discover the
hidden message, and fear can be accompanied by a singing the “tactus” of a person. Music and
songs can provide structure to the care-giver in a rational way and at the same time
relieve the emotional tensions of the patient.
Why deprive ourselves of such a simple tool?