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Bamazing Bananas!

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by

Amanda Mckeon

on 31 May 2015

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Transcript of Bamazing Bananas!

Hypothesis
Materials
Experimental Errors
8 mason jars
6 baby bananas
275 ml of
Rosemary Oil
275 ml of
Olive Oil
275 ml of
Vinegar
food scale
measuring cups
labels (optional)
Control
temperature
Control
atmospheric gas
(O2, CO2, etc)
Measure
microbial presence
(clean houses do not have plentiful amounts of decomposing bacteria)
Test
different varieties
of bananas
Background Info
We hypothesize that the decomposition rate will be best inhibited by
rosemary
because the essential oils (i.e.
Cineole
) found in it will counteract the decomposition enzymes found in bananas.
Our Question
Banana-o-rama!
How do various natural preservatives* affect the decomposition rate of bananas?
BY: AMANDA MCKEON, SCOTT SMITH, VINCE NGUYEN, KERESTIN AZIZ
Bananas' Life Cycles
The History of Bananas
Works cited
Dozens of species & thousands of varieties
[Green 2015]
Each banana variety is identical --> prone to disease
[Kema 2015]
Prior to 1950s -->
Gros Michel
= #1 banana cultivator
[Kema 2015]
Panama disease
cause =
fungus Fusarium
(soil pathogen)
[Kema 2015]
killed off all Gros Michel
Replacement =
Cavendish
[Kema 2015]
bruise easier
inferior in taste & size
more expensive
1992 --> new Fusarium strand now impacts Cavendish
[Kema 2015]
Already spread to: Pakistan, Philippines, & Indonesia
[Kema 2015]
Currently: Africa & Australia (& soon Latin America)
[Kema 2015]
Scientists are genetically engineering bananas to replace Cavendish when it fails.
[Kema 2015]
Conclusion: today's bananas are sterile mutants
[Green 2015]
no seeds
"1,4-Cineole | C10H18O - PubChem." Cineole - Eucalyptol. PubChem, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
Aparicio, Santiago, Rafael Alcalde, María J. Dávila, Begoña García, and José M. Leal. "Properties of 1,8-Cineole: A Thermophysical and Theoretical Study." J. Phys. Chem. B The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 111.12 (2007): 3167-177. Web.
Cute Banana. Digital image. Superb Wallpaper. N.p., 26 May 2013. Web. 20 May 2015.
"Enzymatic Browning." Food-Info.net. Wageningen University, n.d. Web. 13 May 2015.
Fang, Caodi, Changzheng Wang, Youling L. Xiong, and Kirk W. Pomper. "Extraction And Characterization Of Polyphenol Oxidase In Pawpaw (Asimina Triloba) Fruit." J Food Biochemistry Journal of Food Biochemistry 31.5 (2007): 603-20. Web.
"Fusarium Oxysporum." MicrobeWiki. N.p., 24 Apr. 2011. Web. 20 May 2015.
Guray, Melda Zeynep. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM THERMOPHILIC Bacillus Sp. Thesis. E Graduate School of Engineering and Sciences of İzmir Institute of Technology, 2009. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
Janzen, Daniel H. "Why Fruits Rot, Seeds Mold, and Meat Spoils." The American Naturalist American Naturalist, The 111.980 (1977): 691. Web.
Kema, Gert. "What Is the Panama Disease?" Panama Disease. Wageningenur, n.d. Web. 8 May 2015.
Lamina. "Mi Villano Favorito." Gru: Mi Villano Favorito. Universal Pictures, 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 20 May 2015.
Mizobutsi, Gisele Polete, Fernando Luiz Finger, Rosilene Antônio Ribeiro, Rolf Puschmann, Ludmila Lafetá De Melo Neves, and Wagner Ferreira Da Mota. "Effect of PH and Temperature on Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase Activities of Litchi Pericarp." Scientia Agricola Sci. Agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) 67.2 (2010): 213-17. Web.
"Mutant Banana Picture." DNA Today. University of Hawaii, n.d. Web. 20 May 2015.
Organic Vinegar. Digital image. Eco. Eco Image Picures, 01 Mar. 2011. Web. 20 May 2015
Rosemary - Cineole. Digital image. Nat. Geo Image Picures, 16 Apr. 2014. Web. 20 May 2015
Shah, Q.A., F. Bibi, and A.H. Shah. 2013. “Anti-Microbial Effects of Olive Oil and Vinegar against Salmonella and Escherichia coli”. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 14(2):479-486.
Trent. Peel from the Non-Stem End. Digital image. Smartshop It. Wordpress, 16 Aug. 2008. Web. 20 May 2015.
Aerobic decomposition
(naturally occurs when fruit drops to forest floor from a tree)
[Janzen 1977]
Polyphenol oxidase
= primary enzymes of decomposition
Activated when entering the cytosol when banana is bruised
[Fang 2007]
Oxidizes molecules to produce pigments that start decomposition & give brown color
[Fang 2007]
"this physiological change makes the banana appear inedible and unwanted"
[Guray 2007]
Optimal pH =
7.0
[Mizobutsi 2010]
Optimal temp. = 20 degrees celsius
[Mizobutsi 2010]
Inactivity temp. = 60 degrees celsius
[Mizobutsi 2010]
Procedure
Conclusion
Variables

Preservatives
Test chemical preservatives against natural preservatives
Can repeat experiment with other foods to further research various shelf lives
These preservatives were specific in what they preserve - can attempt to take components of each to create all-around preservative
Real Life Application
1. Prepare materials
2. Measure and pour
rosemary oil
into two mason jars: 275 ml per jar. Repeat for
vinegar
and
olive oil
. This should be a total of six jars.
3. Leave the last two mason jars empty for the
control group
.
4. Weigh (grams) all 8 mason jars on food scale and record. Label mason jars with name tags (optional).
5. Weigh four of the six bananas (with peels intact) and record. Set aside for later use.
6. Peel the last two bananas and cut each peeled banana in half. Weigh and record the weight of each of the four pieces of banana.
Independent:
Type of natural preservative
(rosemary oil, olive oil, vinegar)
Time (days)
Condition of banana (peeled/unpeeled)
Dependent:

mass of banana sample (grams)
7. Place one full banana (with peel) into each of the four mason jars
(vinegar, olive oil, rosemary, and empty)
. Record date and time when banana was submerged.
8. Place one of the halves of peeled banana into each of the other four mason jars. Record time and date when banana was submerged.
9. Approximately every 24 hours, weigh mass of mason jar with banana and subtract the weight of the mason jar without banana (weighed in step 4) resulting in the overall weight of the banana for that day. Record qualitative data as well.
10. Repeat step 9 for all 8 mason jars and do this process for 10 days.
11. On tenth day, take out bananas and record final mass for each. Also record time and date when the bananas were taken out.
Constants
Amount of liquid (mL)
Type of banana (Cavendish)
Weight of mason jar (grams)
Control Group
Regular Banana (average conditions)
Evaporation of liquids from not
covering jars
Possible
absorption
of liquids that skewed masses
Inability to
measure bananas directly
Possible
inaccuracy
of food scale in measuring mass
Future Improvements
*Vinegar, Olive Oil, and Rosemary Oil
Cineole
= essential oil in rosemary
[Aparicio 2013]
pH =
neutral

[Aparicio 2013]
antimicrobial & insect repellant
[Aparicio 2013]
commonly preserves meat
[Aparicio 2013]
acts as "coater" of molecules
[Aparicio 2013]
prevent O2 from getting to the banana cells (less O2 --> slower decomposition)
[Aparicio 2013]
pH of olives =
acidic-neutral
[Shah 2013]
preserves dry things
[Shah 2013]
Isolates food from air (by preventing entrance of H20 & O2)
[Shah 2013]
Provides a seal that can delay oxidation, deterioration and molding.
[Shah 2013]
pH = extremely
acidic
[Shah 2013]
Uses...
[Shah 2013]
preserving meat
pickling
contains
acetic acid
[Shah 2013]
kills microbes and delays food spoilage
[Shah 2013]
Rosemary oil
Olive Oil
Vinegar
Polyphenol oxidase
Reduced State
(Colorless)
Oxidized State
(Brown)
Unpeeled bananas:
Line graph
- shows that
vinegar
had the largest decrease including the liquid (311 grams to 284 grams)
includes both the mass of bananas and the volume of liquid, so is not completely accurate
Bar graph
- shows overall mass lost for each banana and displays that
olive oil
lost the most mass (22 grams)
also shows that
rosemary
actually gained 6 grams instead of decreasing
*Measured in grams
Our generation's
Cavendish
bananas are in danger of extinction; therefore, it is necessary to find new ways to preserve them.
hypothesis proved correct -
rosemary
was the best preservative (although all weren't very effective) for bananas
cause:
rosemary
had closest
pH
level to Bananas
All bananas had various textures and defining results
ex. foreign substances, hardnesses
Analysis
Peeled bananas:
Line graph
-
vinegar
also has largest decrease with liquid (263 to 238 grams)
Bar graph
-
constant
had the largest loss of mass overall (4 grams)
vinegar
mass did not change at all: represents a possible absorption/evaporation issue

*measured in grams
Summary
Data Analysis


sample calculation: 59 - 54 = 5 grams
sample calculation: 10 - 9 = 1 gram
Data of unPeeled Bananas
Data of peeled Bananas
Full transcript