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Age of Revolution

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juan santiago

on 6 October 2016

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Transcript of Age of Revolution

The
estate of realm
continued to be the dominant form of social organisation in Europe.

Early Modern society
Early Modern Age
Monarchy during the Early Modern Age
The Early Modern Age is a period which began in 1492 with the discovery of American and ended in 1789 with the outbreak of the French Revolution.
One of the main developments in the 18th century was an intellectual movement called the Enlightenment. The supporters of this movement wanted to use reason, science and education to combat ignorance and reform society.

The Enlightenment
At the end of the 18th century the thirteen North American colonies on the east coast started a war to obtain the independence from Great Britain.
The American Revolution
The French Revolution
Part I
Age of Revolution
Consequences of the discoveries
Massive amounts of gold and silver were brought to Europe from America. As a result, European currencies were devalued, and the price of goods increased.
Spain became the main importer of tobacco from the Americas. In 1614 King Philip III declared the selling of tobacco grown in the Spanish New World that went for sale in Europe a state monopoly and made Seville the “tobacco capital of the world”. This was underlined by the fact that in 1684 Seville got the sole right to manufacture tobacco and that all leaves had to be shipped to a central location.
New agricultural products were imported such as corn, potatoes, tomatoes, cocoa and tobacco. This led to changes in people's diet and everyday habits
After many native people died from diseases of harsh working conditions, slaves were imported from Africa to provide labour.
Colonists also brought diseases with them (smallpox and influenza). Millions of native people died because their bodies had no natural defences against these diseases.
Missionaries, such as the Jesuist, Franciscans and Dominicans, spread Catholicism to the New World. As well as Spanish language and culture were imposed on Native Americans and African slaves.
Authoritarian monarchy
Monarchs in the 16th century are described as 'authoritarian' because they had forced the nobility to accept their authority. However, these monarchs also had to respect institutions that were able to limit their power, such as
Cortes
in Spain or the
Estates General
in France.
Absolute monarchy
In the 17th century, absolute monarchy came to predominate in Western Europe. It was called 'absolute' because the crown had
unlimited authority
which was believed to come from
God
.
They controlled the government and economy of their kingdoms.
They did not allow representative bodies which could limit their crown's power (like Cortes or the Estates General).
Parliamentary monarchy
In England, there was...
A civil war (1640's) between supporters of the king and the Parliament.
Absolute monarchy was replaced by a Republic under the control of the former Parliamentarian commander Oliver Cromwell.
After Cromwell's death, the absolute monarchy was restored, but the
Glorious Revolution
(1666) led to the establishment of a parliamentary monarchy, in which
the monarch's powers were limited by the Parliament
.
For example, the
Bill of Right
(1689) established the need for regular parliaments, and stated that the monarch could not impose taxes without Parliament's consent.
The Ancien Regime economy was based on agriculture, creaft production and trade. However, after the discovery of America, two new economic system developed:
Comercial capitalism and mercantilism
Commercial capitalism
(16th century)
This was a new system of economy that enable private businesses to accumulate profits, especially through trade. Causes:
The emergence of new forms of craft production: workshops and domestic system.
The establishment of banks.
New commercial and financial practices: accounting, bills of exchange and loan.
Mercantilism
(17th century)
During the 17th century, there was a serious
economic crisis
, caused mostly by the enormous amounts of gold and silver that arrived in Europe from America.
An excess of these precious metals caused their value to fall, while prices increased.
Europe's absolute monarchs imposed a new economic system called mercantilism, a
command economy
was based on the idea that a
country's wealth depended on how much gold and silver it possessed
.
In order to accumulate more of these precious metals, monarchs implemented
protectionist policies
to limit imports and encourage exports.
Lesser nobility and lower clergy
(second state)
Third Estate
Peasantry

(poor farmers and labourers)
Bourgeoise
(Upper/lower middle class )
- merchants
- craftsmen
- tradesman
Second Estate: nobility
The King
Knight (Lord)
Duke
First Estate: clergy
nuns
Pope
bishop
abbot
Vassals
rural priest
monk
gentry
aristocracy
Society in Spain
Spanish nobles believed that work brought
dishonour
, and they died not usually invest in productive or profit-making activities like trade.
As a result of the 17th-century economic crisis lesser novelty and peasantry became poorer. This poverty caused some people to become
beggars
,
thieves
or
bandits
.
The tripartite social order of the middle ages
Oratores
: "those who pray"
Laboratores
: "those who work."
Bellatores
: "those who fight"
The number of people entering the clergy increased, since this was a way to poor people to survive.
Clergy and Nobelty were
exent
from paying tax to the crown, and they lived on the
rent
which recieved from their lands, as well as the
taxes
which they collect from the peasentry.
The 18th century was a period of transition between the Early Modern Age and the Modern Age in Europe. During this period, important changes took places which the collapse of the Ancien Régime.
Brueghel el viejo. El triunfo de la muerte (1562)
El Bosco. El jardín de las delicias (1505)
It was a new form of government whose objective was to modernise the country and improve quality of life by mixing
absolute monarchy
with
Enlightenment ideas
.
Enligthened despotism
Carlos III of Spain
Joseph II the Great
Enlightened despots had the following characteristics:
Centralised governments
to consolidate their power and implement their policies.
They appointed
enlightened thinkers
to important positions, for example as ministers.
They tried to
make changes peacefully
avoiding challenges to their power through
education
and
new

laws
.
1773
1775
1787
The outbreak
The spark that started the revolution was the intention of the British to raises taxes, as the American argued that they had not voted for them. In 1773 a new tax on the export of the tea provoked a mutiny in Boston. The colonist, dressed up as Indians, dumped the cargo of tea of three British ships into the sea. The repression that followed was the origin of the revolution.
Great Britain responded by ordering their armed forces into action, and the war broke out in 1775.
Boston Tea Party
The creation of a new state
The Constitution of 1787
On 4 July 1776, the colonist proclaimed the
Declaration of Independence of the United States of America
. The declaration also recognized:
Great Britain did not recognize this decision, so the colonist continued he war under the leadership of George Washington. Finally, with the help of the French and the Spanish armies the British were defeated.
1776
National sovereignty
was the means to guarantee these.
This was a significant triumph for the
Enlightenment
.
the equality of the people
the right to life,
to liberty,
to happiness;
The United States Constitution was written in 1787. It established a
federal republic based on popular sovereignty
and the
separation of powers
. It also recognised the legal equality of all citizens, although in most states
suffrage
was limited. This meant that only male citizen with a certain level of wealth and property could vote in elections.
The Industrial Revolution
The causes
The influence of the Enlightenment
French intellectuals and bourgeoisie supported Enlightenment ideas and tried to put them into practise. For example, they demanded that all French subjects be free and equal under the law.
The political crisis
King Louis XVI governed France as an absolute monarch and opposed meetings of the Estates General. For that reason, the
estates of the realm
could not present their demands or try to limit the king's power.
Middle class and peasantry
Clergy
Nobility
King
The economic crisis
The French state was
bankrupt
as a result of its participation in military conflicts, such as the American War of Independence. The royal family also spent large amounts of money on palaces, luxury goods and extravagant parties.
The social crisis
The
upper middle class
or
bourgeoisie
wanted to abolish the absolute monarchy because it didn't allow them to participate in government
The
lower middle class
, or
petite bourgeoise
, was suffering from economic difficulties caused by wars, higher taxes and increased competition from British products.
The
peasantry
not only suffered taxes and poor harvest but also they had to pay higher rent to the clergy and nobility.
In the face of increasing political and economic problems, Louis XVI decided to call together the
Estates General
in 1789 in order to increase taxes.
At the meeting, the Third Estate proposed a new voting system in which each representative would have an individual vote. When the king refused, they formed a National Assembly and demanded a
Constitution
.
The Constituent Assambly
The king finally agreed to the Third Estate's demands. A new Constituent Assembly was elected to write a Constitution.
At the same time, protesters began to riot in the streets of Paris, and on 14 July, they attacked the
Bastille
(a famous political prision). After that, more
riots
broke out in the countryside and in the other cities around France.
Louis XVI opposed the reforms of the Legislative Assembly and asked Austria for support. In response, the assembly imprisoned the king, abolished the monarchy and declared France a
Republic
.
The French Revolution
Part II
The National Assembly
Legal Reforms
Feudal rights were abolished
by the Constituent Assembly
Approved the
Declaration of the Righs of Man and the Citizen
(1789)
In 1791, a
Constitution
established:
Parliamentary Monarchy
Popular sovereignty
Separation of power
Limited male suffrage
The Legislative Assembly
Two political groups dominated this assembly:
Girondins
(liberals)
Jacobins
(radicals)
The Convention
Under the leadership of Robespierre, the Jacobins took control of the government and imposed a
dictatorship
. Louis XVI was accused of treason and then executed.
Reign of terror
The Jacobins persecuted people they believed to be counter-revolutionaries.
The Directory
By 1795, a more conservative government gained control of the country in order to stop the violence and executions.
Meanwhile, a number of European countries formed a coalition and declared war on France to prevent the revolution from spreading.
The Consulate
In 1799, France was still at war with other European powers , and at home radical revolutionaries wanted to regain control.
In response, General Napoleon Bonaparte organised a military coup and established a new form of govenmented called The Consulate. This was a group of three leaders known as consuls, which included Napoleon himself as head of state and First Consul.
The main consequence of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Empire was the desintegration of the Ancien Régime.
The French Revolution
Part III
Political changes
The end of the absolute monarch
New forms of government:
Constitutional monarchy
Republic
New constitution based on
popular sovereignty
and the
separation of power.
The emergence of
political groups
Economic Changes
All citizens
now had to pay tax and contribute to the state's expenses
New laws guaranteed
private property rights
Free trade
was also guaranteed, which benefited middle-class merchant.
Social changes
Once the clergy and nobility had lost the
privileges
they had enjoyed under the Ancien Régime, the
estates system
ceased to exist.
Napoleon gradually increased is power and was named
First Consul
for Life in 1802. He then declared himself
Emperor
of France in 1804. Napoleon defeated all the countries that were allied against France, except for Great Britain. However, from
1812
onwards, his power began to decline because he had to divide his forces between two distant fronts: Spain and the Russian Empire.
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