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Atomic History Timeline
Transcript of Atomic History Timeline
Atomic History Timeline
Democritus was an influential pre-socratic philosopher and pupil of Leucippus, who formulated what is thought to be the first atomic theory. He claimed that everything is made up of atoms which are physically, but not geometrically indivisible; between atoms lies empty space, atoms are indestructible, have been and always will be in motions, and there are indefinite number of atoms and kind of atoms which differ in shape and size.
Daniel Bernoulli (1738)
Daniel Bernoulli's greatest work was his hydrodynamica, which included the principle now known as Bernoulli's Principle. He also made important contributions to probability theory, astronomy, and the theory of differential equations.
Evangelista Torricelli (1608)
Galileo argued that suction pumps were able to draw water from a well because of the "force of vacuum" inside the pump. Evangelista Torricelli suggested that rather than water being pumped by a "force of vacuum" that the air in our atmosphere has weight and that the force of the atmosphere pushing down on the surface of the water drives the suction pump when it is evacuated.
Joseph Louis Proust (1798)
Joseph Louis Proust was a french chemist who invented the law of definite proportions, or sometimes called Proust's Law, that states that a chemical compound always contains exactly the same proportion of element by mass. Proust made this observation based on several experiments conducted over seven years.
Henri Becquerel (1899)
One of Henri Becquerel's contributions was to measure the deflection of beta particles, which are a constituent of the radiation in both electric and magnetic fields. He also contributed greatly to the theory of radioactivity, he found out the allegedly active substance in uranium lost its radiating ability in time.
Einstein's early work on the theory of relativity demonstrated that two observers moving at a great speed with respect to each other will disagree about measurements of length and time intervals made in each others systems. They will argue that the speed of light is the limiting speed of all bodies having mass, and that mass and energy are equivalent.
Dalton Atomic Model (1803)
Democritus (460 BC)
Aristotle (384 BC)
Teaching in the Fourth Century BC, had also written of this prime matter as a featureless, quality-less stuff, onto which the various qualities of hotness, coldness, dryness, and moistness could be impressed to form the four elements that Empedocles had postulated in the Fifth Century BC (The Norton History of Chemistry by William H Brock). He was also the first to treat systematically the fields of botany, zoology, anatomy, embryology, teratology, and physiology.
Thomson's Model (1897)
Dalton discovered that only certain gases could be combined in certain proportions even if two different compounds shared the same common element or group of elements. He found that elements combine at the atomic level in fixed ratios, and that this ratio would naturally differ in compounds due to the unique atomic weights of the elements being combined.
J.J. Thomson discovered the electron, which is the first subatomic particle. The electrons were thought to be positioned throughout the atom, but with many structures possible for positioning multiple electrons, particularly rotating rings of electrons; also known as "The Plum Pudding Model".
Quantum Mechanical Model (1926)
Quantum mechanical model is a model of atomic structure that is based on mathematics and can be used to explain observations made on complex atoms. It also uses complex shapes of orbitals (also known as electron clouds), volumes of space in which there is likely to be an electron.
In DeBroglie's thesis he postulates the wave of nature of electrons and suggested that all matter has wave properties. This concept is known as "wave-particles duality" or the "DeBroglie hypothesis".
Sir James Chadwick was an English physicist and famous for his discovery of a neutron. Electrons move around the neucleus (which is the heaviest part of an atom) on "orbits".
Modified Rutherford's model by making the electrons more stable by them moving in orbits of fixed size and energy.
Robert Millikan (1909)
Robert Millikan conducted his oil drop experiment to determine the unit charge of an electron. This allowed others to calculate the mass of the electron and positively charged atoms.
Ernest Rutherford (1899)
Ernest Rutherford concluded that each atom was mostly empty space, but contained a dense central mass by sending charged particles at a thin gold foil. He also discovered the central mass must have a positive charge because it deflected the particles he sent at the foil.
Antoine Lavoisier (1785)
Antoine Lavoisier proposed the Law of Conservation of Mass which represents the beginning of chemistry. This caused others to study the science of chemistry including atoms.