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UNFCCC Youth: 1) The Convention: An introduction

This 1st presentation takes us through the UNFCCC, its Articles and Annexes, the Subsidiary Bodies (SBI/SBSTA) and COPs. The famous youth intervention from the Rio Earth Summit is featured, plus youth campaign issues of access, Article 6 (ACE) & 1.5C
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on 30 June 2016

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Transcript of UNFCCC Youth: 1) The Convention: An introduction

UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, sometimes called "The Convention". Agreed in 1992
SBI
SBSTA
COP
KP
CMP
Bali Action Plan
LULUCF
REDD
REDD+
Article 6
1.5C Review
Shared Vision
KP2
Gigatonne Gap
Mitigation
Finance
Tech Transfer
Capacity Building
1.5C To Stay Alive
Adaptation
NAMA
Economic and Social Consequences of Response Measures
MRVs
Groups
Constituencies
Negotiators
G77 (+China)
LDCs
AOSIS
SIDS
African Group
EU
OPEC
Umbrella Group
JUSSCANNZ
GRULAC
AWG-KP
AWG-LCA
AGBM
GHGs
CDM
JI
GEF
IGOs
IPCC
SCCF
AF
LDCF
NAPAs
ENGO
CAN
GCCA
CJN!
YOUNGO
RINGO
BINGO
Gender & Women
TUNGO
ECO
IMO
WHO
QELROs
UNEP
UNESCO
GCF
Secretariat
UN Security
Farmers
Indigenous Peoples
Local Governments
COW
COY
Comms WG
Actions WG
Policy WG
BL Team
Access
YoFuGe
Interventions WG
Zero Emissions
The UNFCCC is full of confusing acronyms! One of the most often used, but least often explained, is
GHGs or Green House Gasses
(Like CO2). For a handy list of UNFCCC acronyms and their meaning see this list written by UKYCCC for COP19: http://www.rtcc.org/2013/11/08/un-climate-jargon-buster-a-guide-to-deciphering-the-warsaw-talks/
The convention contains 26 "Articles" which cover a range of topics, such as:
- Setting out definitions (Art1), Objectives (Art2) and Principles (Art3)
- That Parties (countries) will attempt to reduce their GHGs (Art4), research Climate Change (Art5),
- Parties are encouraged to facilitate climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and access to information (Art6)
- How countries will negotiate and agree on things (Art7, 13-26)
- Sets up permanent bodies of the UNFCCC : SBSTA (Art9) and SBI (Art10),
- Sets up a Secretariat (Art8) to facilitate things, a financial mechanism (Art11) and communication channels (Art12)
Subsidary Body for Implementation (Art10)
Parties negotiate in this Body to work towards delivering
the Articles and agreements of the original UNFCCC convention
and subsequent decisions.
When the Convention was created in 1992, ‘Annexes’ were included at the end to differentiate between the responsibilities of developed and developing countries.
Annex I = Industrialised Countries in 1992 (i.e. Western World + post-Soviet countries)
Annex II = Annex I countries who should provide finance (i.e. Western World)
Annex B = Annex I countries who agreed to reduce emissions in the Kyoto Protocol in 1997
Non-Annex I = "Developing" Countries in 1992

This has changed since the Paris Agreement in 2015, we will return to this in later modules.

Want a closer look?
Annexes
There are 2 big parts of the SBI that youth lobby on: Access and Article 6 (education)
Young people should have a voice in the discussions
at the UN climate negotiations. But are 2-minute
speeches and approved actions enough?
This is a key issue for young people, and a group of
dedicated youth spend their time working with other
civil society groups to lobby on this SBI issue called Arrangement for Intergovernmental Meetings (AIM).

In Paris, civil society access to the talks was more limited due to the high profile nature of the conference, meaning there were higher levels of applications from observers, as well as heightened security concerns. Civil society groups are working together on AIM to increase access and transparency in future talks.
Article 6 (referring to the sixth article of the UNFCCC Convention) encourages Parties to deliver climate change education, training, public participation, access to information and public awareness. It also encourages them to cooperate internationally to do these things. Young people have a big stake in the Article 6 negotiations, and have always played an important role in sharing their expertise and bringing the youth perspective to the talks. In 2012, youth supported Parties in the creation of the Doha Work Programme on Article 6. This resulted in 8 pages of detailed instructions for countries on how to implement the article at national and sub-national levels. Woo! A key win for youth was the inclusion of Article 6 ‘focal points’ – people based in each country’s Government who is given the responsibility to implement this, increasing accountability and helping to mobilise resources. This topic is also referred to as Action for Climate Empowerment (ACE), and is also included in the Paris Agreement (yay!) thanks to youth campaigning.
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice meets in parallel to SBI. They try not to get involved in political discussion, but instead talk about scientific reports and clarify things for the negotiators. With the release of the 5th IPCC report SBSTA has renewed significance.
Sebastien Duyck from France makes a statement in Cancun on behalf of (nearly) all civil society groups- suggesting some practical ways to move forward on access.
Adriana, the Dominican Republic negotiator on Article 6 explains her role and the role of youth in the successful Cancun decision
Katie Scales from the UK and Ben Vanpeperstraete from Belgium talk about the successful Article 6 decision in Cancun
Severn Suzuki from Canada delivers a speech that makes the UN stop and listen to youth.
Emma Moon from New Zealand tells SBSTA they need to define the difference between "forest" and "plantation"
At a Bonn Intersessional in 2010 during a SBSTA negotiation, oil-exporting countries like Saudi Arabia and Oman blocked a scientific reivew of the evidence behind setting 1.5C as a maximum temperature rise goal. Countries from the Global South and Small Islands were outraged at this and called on young people to take a stand for science and for fairness. The review ended up taking place from 2013-2015, and in the Paris Agreement countries agreed to ‘pursue efforts’ to limit global temperature rises to 1.5C.
Conference of the Parties
‘Parties’ (i.e. countries that have signed up to be party to the Convention) meet once a year at the Conference of the Parties (COP). This happens in November or December, and is the time when Government Ministers come together to agree to the policies that their negotiators have been working on throughout the year. If all Parties agree, these policies are passed into international law under the Convention. Government negotiators often meet earlier in the year in ‘Subsidiary body meetings’ (usually in Bonn, Germany), and may collectively decide upon something, but until something is passed as a COP Decision, it is not international law.
COP Decisions
Danny Hutley from the UK, reports from the disasterous blocking of 1.5C Review and the international youth make a stand
The Ad-Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate
The Berlin Mandate set out a path for countries to agree a binding climate treaty within 2 years. The AGBM was a set of negotiations tasked with doing this, and it's work ceased in 1997 when the Kyoto Protocol was decided
Kyoto Protocol
Named after the city where it was decided at COP3, the Kyoto Protocol COMMITTED countries to reducing GHGs (instead of the Convention encouraging them to).
Parties who signed up to KP set their own reduction targets and then have to reduce their emissions through National strategies and "flexible mechanisms" like trading emissions.
I <3 KP
Marrakesh Accords
These were decided in 2001 and clarify the rules of the KP
Conference of the Meeting of Parties
This negotiating body is made up of ministers like the COP, but only has a mandate to make decisions about the Kyoto Protocol. They meet at the same time as COPs, so meetings are usually called "COP17/CMP7".
Adhoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol
This is the negotiating body that discuss the KP. They work throughout the year to come to agreements to suggest to the CMP and COP.
Leela Raina from India gives a speech on behalf of Youth at the AWG-KP in Bangkok, 2011
Cecila Panjit from Nepal delivers a statement to the UN about the KP
LULUCF Logging Loopholes
Flexible Mechanisms
The KP commits Annex I countries to reducing emissions. It lets them do this through actual reductions but also through market-based mechanisms.
ETS
Emissions Trading Scheme
A central authority (e.g. a government/the EU) sets a limit (cap)
to the amount of carbon allowed, then companies are allowed
to trade "carbon credits" under this cap.
Clean Development Mechanism
Allows countries who emmit a lot of GHGs to offset this by investing in clean energy projects in developing countries
Joint Implementation
Allows industrialised countries to carry out emission-reduction projects in another industrialised country and count it as their own reduction in emissions
Selling our Future?
Do these flexible market mechanisms really work? Or do they
just encourage countries to hide their emissions with creative
accounting? Is it right to reduce big issues like our planet and
our future to just a matter of markets and money?
Young people in Cancun set up a Carbon Market to show
negotiators and the press a horrible vision of the future
The Cancun Agreements
Notable Moments
Quantified Emission Limitation and Reduction Objectives
= the Annex I commitments to reduce their GHGs
Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry
One of the hardest acronyms to remember!
This means that Annex I countries can use any changes is land use to reduce their emissions. e.g. they could plant a forest, or protect a forest. This only applies to Annex I forests! However this is full of loopholes...
So richer countries want to create loopholes in LULUCF to hide about 400 miilion tonnes of their emissions in. This would lead to major deviation from emissions targets. We need richer countries to account for all of their emissions. Watch the videos to see how young people have campaigned on this difficult issue.
Danny Hutley from the UK reports on the Youth action "Welcome to Loophole Land" in Bonn 2010
The International Youth protest the LULUCF Loopholes in Cancun
Young People urge LULUCF negotiators to stop "cooking the books" in Bonn 2010
International Youth set up a Carbon Market at the UN to sell our planet, our air and our future
The Second Commitment Period to the Kyoto Protocol
The First KP Commitment Period runs from 2008-2012. It was expected that countries would fulfil their obligations and commit emissions reduction targets for a second commitment period from 2012. However Japan, Russia, Canada and others want to kill the KP.
KP may not be perfect, but it's all we've got: it's the worlds only binding climate treaty and the only thing there to protect our future. If countries kill the KP beyond 2012 by not signing up to a second commitment period, then this is bad news.
It may not be perfect, but we love the KP and we think Parties should love the KP too. But true love needs commitment: and young people are pushing for Parties to show that commitment this year.
Anna from Italy asks the chair of the AWG-KP (John) to marry her in a suprise speach to the UN in Bonn 2010
Young people hold a wedding of Annex I Parties to the KP in Bonn 2010
Conference of the Whole
Yes, it this acronym actually existed once.
I'm not lying

Here is a picture of a cow
The chair of the SBI accepts Article 6. Thanks in part to the Youth efforts a UN decision was made in 90 minutes, which has never been done before. The chair had previously sarcastically commented that if it happens, he would give negotiators "golden stars", so when it did happen we made some golden stars for him to give out.
COP Decisions are written like this:
1/CP1 refers to the first COP which was in Berlin. 1/CP15 refers to the first decision taken at the famous COP15 in Copenhagen. 2/CP21 refers to the second decision in Paris at COP21 (and so on).
Under the REDD Carpet?
Fair Finance?
World Bank- Hands off!
Youth in the Text
Our Future Capacity
Tech TransFAIR?
You may have heard people refer to the COP in Copenhagen in 2009 (COP15). At this COP, countries aimed to reach a global climate treaty but failed to come to an agreement (they later succeeded in Paris in 2015). However, at COP15 they did establish the 2C temperature target in the Copenhagen Accord. For those campaigning on climate change, this was important because a 2C temperature rise (above pre-industrial levels) was at that time scientifically recognised as the maximum temperature increase before the risks posed by climate change would become ‘unmanageable’. In addition, the Copenhagen Accord promised climate finance to developing countries. This accord was not officially adopted by the UNFCCC, despite receiving 140 signatures, and is sometimes seen as controversial because developing countries were under pressure to sign in order to receive climate finance. The temperature target was revised under the Paris Agreement, meaning countries now ‘pursue efforts’ to limit the increase to 1.5C.
At COP16 in 2010, The Cancun Agreements helped to get the negotiations back on track after the disappointment of Copenhagen. These agreements were important for introducing climate adaptation into the text (as well as mitigation), and for having the first reference to human rights.
After Cancun, the UKYCC team attempted to explain the negotiations using handpuppets. The video went viral with over 11,000 hits; even the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC Christina Figueres called it "too fabulous"
At COP13 in Bali, delegates agreed on a "Road Map" that would take them to a global binding climate treaty to replace the KP. This was due to be delivered at COP15 in Copenhagen, but is way overdue. They decided that any new deal must tackle: A Shared Vision, Mitigation, Developing Country Forests (REDD), Adaptation, Technology Transfer, Capacity Building and Finance.
This would all be negotiated under the name LCA, "Long-term Coorporative Action"
Danny Hutley from the UK reports from Bonn 2010. With the helps of friends he explains the importance of Civil Society involvement, and finishes with footage of the infamous clap in Bali that pressured the USA to agree to the Bali Action Plan.
Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooporative Action
Throughout the year, this negotiating group sits in sessions parallel to the AWG-KP. It discusses progress on the Bali Action Plan towards a future global binding treaty. The AWG-LCA has several arguments to solve and sometimes these different policy areas split off into Contact Groups to negotiate and come back to the AWG-LCA
During Bonn 2009, Najit from Indonesia tells the negotiators in the AWG-LCA to strip down to their underwear and jump in the waterfall.
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degredation
This policy area looks at reducing emissions by protecting Non-Annex I forests (i.e. developing country forests). It proposes Market mechanisms to do this, where developing countries are rewarded with funds when they protect their forests.
REDD+ builds on REDD. As well as protecting forests, it also allows for Forest conservation, sustainable forest management and planting new forests as a means of reducing emissions. The same market mechanisms apply.
The main people pushing a deal on REDD+ are richer countries, the World Bank and Big Business. There is a lot of potential financial gain out of REDD+. But where does that leave the Indigenous People who live in the forests? Will their homes be sold to the highest bidder in "sustainable management schemes"? REDD+ is very controversial and angers many Indigenous people and young people
A report from the forests of the Democratic Republic of Congo looks at the potential gains and threats of a REDD+ shceme in their area
Nairobi Work Programme
This programme aims to use SBSTA to advise governments (especially developing country governments) on the impact, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. It then gives them advice on the best way to approach climate change policies in their own countries.
This area of negotiations looks at how countries with high climate impacts can be supported.
National Adaptation Programme of Action
These are plans to support the Least Developed Countries. They look at current grass-roots actions and build on them to produce regional and national policies
There will need to be a large transfer of money from developed to developing countries to fund adaptation and mitigation efforts. In this group, negotiators focus on how much is needed, where it comes from and whether it should be in loans, aid or investment in business.
The Global Environment Facility
This is where most of the global climate money travels through. It was founded as part of the World Bank, became seperate in 1994, but the World Bank reamins it's trustee. Although developing countries get more of a say in it than the World Bank, it has been accused of mainly financing climate projects that benefit rich countries who are it's main donors.
The Green Climate Fund, agreed at COP16 in Cancun aims to provide $100bn funding to developing countries by 2020. It is run seperately from the World Bank by a committee of 25 developing countries vs. 15 developed countries. However the World Bank remains it's trustee.
The Special Climate Change Fund was set up in 2001 and started work in 2004. It was meant to be reviewed in 2009 but not one country bothered to submit it's views on the SCCF. So nobody is certain of its future.
The Least Developed Countries Fund is controlled by the GEF and provides money to developing countries to fund their NAPAs
Adaptation Fund. 2% of CDM (Clean Development Mechanism, see "flexible mechanisms" under Kyoto Protcol) profits go into this fund.
It's all very well giving money out to poorer countries- but we can't let rich countries just buy their way out of responsibility. There is also a danger that richer countries will give out loans and increase the debt of poorer countries. Lastly, in 2010 many innovative ways for reaching $100bn per year by 2020 were outlined by a committee chaired by UN Seccretary General Ban Ki Moon. However these have been largely ignored so far. Poor Ban...
Young people warn negotiators in Bonn 2010 not to fall into the trap of giving out loans
The World Bank is a controversial Trustee of many of these Funds. It has a very bad history of lending lots of money to big pollutors and giving developing countries no say in its governance. Some people argue it's the only institution with the capacity to handle big sums of money, but the Green Climate Fund has shown it's possible to do things another way. Many people want the World Bank out of climate finance fullstop, not as a trustee, not as an owner, and no seat at the table.
Protestors from the Philippines and Indonesia urge the World Bank to keep its hands off
The Technology Transfer strand of LCA looks at how everyone can most benefit from the development of new renewable technologies. At the moment most technologies are developed in richer countries and then poorer countries have to pay high prices on patented products to use them. Cancun established a Tech Transfer board to look into these isues, but richer countries refused to negotiate on patents.
Without even discussing patents, are countries missing a big opportunity for creating a world powered by renewables? Youth educational exchanges or partnerships could also be key for sharing knowledge and technologies between Annex 1 and non-Annex I parties. Are there ways that University students can pressure Universities to make their climate innovations accessible to all?
This is an area of the LCA negotiations we need to keep our eyes on. This means that negotiators will look at the economic impacts of countries reducing their carbon. Some oil-exporting countries even want large amounts of compensation for reducing their carbon!
Capacity Building refers to the need to ensure that all countries have the skills, training and structures in place to be able to mitigate their emissions and adapt to the consequences of climate change.
Capacity Building is really important for young people as it involves our training, our education, and the support young people get around the world to tackle climate change at a local level. We can use strong decisions on capactiy building to make cases to our governments and local instutitions. We can also tackle the injustice of lack of support for developing countries.
The Capacity Building text started as a very good set of proposals and ideas for putting real effort into helping poorer countries. But during Cancun it was dramatically cut down, with many of the good ideas taken out. This included the reference to need to include young people in Capacity Building. If they are not building the capacity of young people, then where will we be in 20 years time?
Youth have been systemically removed from the text, but were also removed from the building in the most important final few days of COP15 in Copenhagen
Mitigation deals with the amount countries will reduce their emissions and how they will do this. This is the area we have seen very little progress on in the last few years, with voluntary targets that are not met. The two main challenges for Mitigation in the LCA is how developing countries can also reduce their emissions (unlike KP) and whether there is an alternative to inadequate voluntary targets (unlike KP).
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. This means targets for Non-Annex I developing countries to reduce their emissions.
Measurable, Reportable and Verifiable. This is a US suggestion that calls for all country's targets to be quantified properly and checked out independently. Countries like China are a little less happy about people interfering with their accounting figures.
The Gigatonne Gap is the gap between the promises and the science. If countries do keep their current promises, we'll be looking at a 3.5-5C temperature rise, yet the science says we should try to keep it to 1.5C. Countries need to increase their ambitions or a treaty needs to have binding scientific targets to close the Gigatonne Gap.
In Bonn 2010 youth blocked the path from the train to the hotel with a suprise limbo for the negotiators, highlighting the Gigatonne Gap
Some youth have recently started talking about a need to create zero emission action plans in countries to get to zero emissions.
The Bali Road Map highlighted that lots of technical discussion was getting stuck because negotiators were actually aiming for completelty different things. So they mandated the AWG-LCA to come up with a shared vision. This part of the negotiations aims to agree a maximum temperature goal, affirms Parties' belief in the urgency of climate change, protects human rights and stakeholder engagement etc. The disucussions can often become quite philosophical, but can also act as a breakthrough for other areas of the text.
The difference between a shared vision os a maximum 2C rise and 1.5C rise is not a small thing. It means the difference between small islands surviving or going underwater. It is the difference between possible runnaway climate change or not. 1.5C is in line with the best science, and it's the maximum young people want to protect our future.
Young people in Cancun were forcibly removed from the negotiations for counting the number of climate deaths in 2010 whilst pleading with negotiators to adopt a 1.5C goal.
UNFCCC
Executive Secretary
The UNFCCC Secretariat work for the UN to carry out the decisions made by the COP. They can only do things that are mandated to them by all Parties. So they cannot write text or have an influence on the text. However they are good sources of in-depth knowledge on policy. They liaise with "Focal Points" from each Constituency to approve actions and help us where possible.
The Executive Secretary is the leader of the Secretariat. Like the Secretariat they do not take a political position within the negotiations. However they have a big influence on process and outcomes by suggesting solutions, encouraging constructive debate and framing the negotiations. The current Executive Secretary is Christiana Figueres from Costa Rica.
Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres talks to young people from the "Adopt a Negotiator" project. In this video she sits down to relax with the youth and talk frankly and very openly about her passion, her inspiration and her expectations for the process.
UN Security are tasked with securing UN venues for negotiators and also for civil society. The Secretariat protects the right for young people to take action during UNFCCC meetings. However these must be approved by the Secretariat in advance.
Negotiators wear pink badges at the COP. You can talk to them in corridors (as long as you don't harrass them) or you can arrange meetings with them. Negotiators will often come in teams so be aware that the negotiator you are approaching may not know about the issue you want to lobby on!
Countries often negotiate as part of groups...
ALBA
Mountains Group(s)
Pronouned "Juice-Cans", this was a temporary alliance of Japan, USA, Switzerland, Canada, Australia, Norway, New Zealand, Iceland and Lichtenstein. They didn't stay together long but you never know when they might pop up again.
JUSSCANNZ evolved into the Umbrella group. This is the loosest coalition of countries at the UNFCCC. They are non-EU developed countries who try to strategise together- but usually talk separately anyway. As they often don't get the support of everyone in their group, they will usually clarify at the start of their statement exactly which countries they are speaking for.
CACAM
The European Union not only take a common negotiating position (with it's President member state taking the floor), they are also the only group of countries to submit joint emissions reduction targets and have their own nameplate at the UNFCCC. They have coordinating meetings every morning. Poland has their presidency until June 2012.
The Group of 77 has now evolved to a group of 131 of the world's "poorer" countries. It often takes a lot of time and effort for them to come to a common strategic position, but they fact that they achieve it at all is remarkable. The G77 appoints lead countries "Chairs" for each issue and has an overall Chair. In 2011 this is Argentina, which will be a very important country to focus on. China often joins the G77 in their statements and attends all of their meetings, but is not part of the G77, hence statements are made as "G77" or "G77 + China".
EIG
The Organisation of Petroleum-Exporting Countries includes Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Iran, Qatar, Libya, Kuwait and others. They exist to protect the economic interests of their petroleum.
Least Developed Countries are objectively defined by the UN based on poor economy, low human assets and high economic vulnerability. They include 33 African countries, 10 Asian, 1 Caribbean and 5 Pacific countries.
The African Group is a sub-grouping of the G77, countries based on the continent of Africa. For example, Malawi is
both a member of the African Group and of the G77.
Small Island Developing States are defined by the UN based on geographic and economic criteria. They must be full member states of the UN unlike AOSIS...
Alliance of Small Island States. This is the political lobbying grouping of SIDS plus 5 other small Island "Observers" without UN country status. They often take strong moral stances and put forward proposals in line with the science
Central Asian Caucus and Maldova. These include Armenia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan etc. They don't often group together, only at times where the definition of "Developing country" or "Economy in Transition" is being defined.
Alliance Bolivarian of the Americas. These are South American left-wing countries of Bolivia, Venezuela, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua. They support the outcomes of the People's Agreement at the Cochabamba Conference in 2010. They often group together to make moral and anti-market stands in the negotiations. Venezuela is unusual in being part of ALBA and OPEC- which gives them a slightly bipolar quality in the talks. In Cancun, Bolivia stood alone in rejecting the Cancun agreements and many people wondered whether ALBA had abandoned them, however Bolivia claim to be building a broader alliance and ALBA was back in force in the Bangkok intersessionals of 2011
Group of Latin American and Caribbean countries. This is more of an official UN regional grouping which includes Central and South America and the Caribbean.
The Environmental Integrity Group. An unusual grouping of Mexico, the Republic of Korea and Switzerland (sometimes Lichtenstein and Monaco). It is the only group that brings Annex I and non-Annex I countries together to make proposals. They like to think they propose practical solutions
In 2010 Nepal announced it was thinking of bringing together countries with Mountains into a negotiating group. However Armenia, Kyrgistan and Tajikistan jumped the gun and formed their own group called "Group of Mountain Landlocked Developing Countries". Nepal didn't join them at first and tried to establish it's own group of mountainous countries.
Jonathan Pershing, the lead US negotiator
Konihiko Shimada, Japan
Clare Walsh and Louise Hand, Australia
UK Lead negotiator Peter Betts takes the mic from the EU Belgian presidency to tell the UN "This is magnificent, but it is not negotiation."
Mexican chief negotiator Luis d'Alba
Xie Zhenhua, negotiator for China
Negotiators from the G77 group align their strategy before a G77 coordinating meeting
Claudia Salerno, Venezuela
Tosi Mpanu Mpanu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Yaw Opong Boadi, Ghana
Thilmeeza Hussein, Minister and Negotiator for the Maldives
Ian Fry, Tuvalu, tells participants not willing to sign up to KP2 to "quietly and politely leave the room"
Pablo Salon, Bolivia, is one of the most outspoken negotiators. He was the only one not to agree to the Cancun agreements.
BASIC group
Luiz A. Figueiredo, Brazil
Brazil, South Africa, India and China. This is a group of very powerful, fast-growing economies. Being non-Annex I countries but holding a lot of economic weight between them, they have the potential to bridge the negotiations providing a breakthrough. It is going to be interesting at COP17 in South Africa to see if this group becomes a strong political force for the Global South.
Alf Wills, South Africa
Intergovernmental Organisations
These are big UN bodies, or other international organisations that are not NGOs (non-governmental organisations).
UNDP
UNITAR
United Nations Institute for Training and Research
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Scientists who procude reports on Climate Change)
World Health Organisation
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
International Maritime Organisation (Ships)
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Development Programme
Constituencies are groups of Observers who are permitted to attend UN meetings, receive updates and support from the Secretariat, make submissions and intervene in UN meetings.
Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations
Trade Unions
Business
Research & Independent NGOs
Climate Action Network. This is a group of 550 international NGOs who closely track the negotiatons, make policy statements, coordinate communications and select countries to receive a "Fossil of the Day". They split their ENGO priveledges equally with CJN!, including only taking 1 minute of the ENGO 2 minute speach.
Global Campaign for Climate Action (known as tcktcktck) is an alliance of NGOs who focus on campaigning within and outside of the UNFCCC to build a global climate movemnet. They focus on communications, actions and also run the "Adopt a Negotiator" tracker scheme
Climate Jusitce Now! are the second half of the ENGO constituency. They are made up of more left-wing NGOs and have 1 minute of the 2 minute ENGO speeches.
Once CAN has voted on the most strategic countries to award Fossil of the Day award, Young people get the job of presenting the prizes.
"ECO" is a daily newsletter published by CAN giving a roundup of the latest events and gossip from the negotiators. It also suggests constructive ways forward and shames most obstructive countries. The newsletter has become an influential favourite amongst negotiators who often carry one around as essential reading.
GCCA identified Japan as a key target in Cancun for announcing they were not going to commit to KP2. It attempted to embarrass them by taking out full-page adverts in global newspapers.
Youth Non-Governmental Organisations
Focal Points
Conference of Youth
This usually happens the weekend before the start of negotiations. It's a great opportunity for YOUNGO to come together to meet, share skills, create strategy and have fun.
AYCC (Australian Youth Climate Coalition) report from COY6 in Cancun 2010.
This is a whole day during the negotiations where there are events, talks and actions drawing attention to future generations.
Young and Future Generations Day
Youth outside the negotiations in Cancun prepare an official video for YoFuGe.
Spokescouncil
Spokescouncil is the official decision-making body of YOUNGO. It is named after the spokes on a bicycle wheel. If you want to speak or have an action on behalf of YOUNGO it goes through this. A representative from each organisation a "spoke" sits in a circle and the members of that organisation sit behind them and feed their ideas into the centre. Voting takes place using "waving hands" and everyone in the spoke must agree in order to achieve consensus.
The Bottom-Linining Team is a group of volunteers in YOUNGO who make sure things are happening. They do not have any powers to make decisions for YOUNGO but keep up with deadlines, run elections and ensure fairness.
There are 2 YOUNGO Focal Points each year. This is one person from the Global North and one person from the Global South. Their job is to liaise with the UNFCCC Secretariat on YOUNGO issues.
Policy Working Group
The YOUNGO Policy Working Group coordinates between several Policy and Advocacy groups within YOUNGO. There are Policy WGs on Forests, Article 6, Access, 1.5C, Tech Transfer, Capacity Building, Finance and more.
The Communication's Working Group coordinates YOUNGO efforts to produce press releases, blogs and talk to the media targetting the negotiations and people back home. They also put on press conferences, create a buzz around key policy issues and put pressure on negotiations at strategic points.
Abigail Borah from the USA delivers her message to world leaders after COP16 in Cancun
YOUNGO can make 2-minute speeches during negotiations at particular points where it is allowed by the chair. These require input from Policy and Communications and Intervention WGs to get a speech that tackles relevant policy but also conveys the moral voice we can bring to the negotiations.
Christina Ora, from the Soloman Islands delivers an intervention to the AWG-LCA during COP15 Copenhagen.
The Actions Working Group respond to policies with strategic actions, that put pressure on negotiations at key moments, or draw the eyes of the world's media. They plan action messaging, logistics, make artistic and creative props and bring it all together for a powerful message.
Young people draw attention to the issue of survival within the negotiations during COP14 in Poznan.
Welcome to this Module on the UN Climate Negotiations. This is best viewed in full-screen (click on icon on bottom right). You can use the arrows at the bottom to navigate your way through...
You can also zoom in & out and drag the screen around to see how everything is linked. Move your mouse to the right of the screen to bring up a zoom control. You can go at your own pace and go backwards to reread things. Looking at the UN talks as a big diagram, with of lots of arrows and associations, can help relate every little policy detail to the big picture!
The UN Climate Negotiations aren't all about minute policy details. But it can be useful to know a bit of policy structure so you can navigate and understand where young people must make a stand to protect our future. Youth will not stay quiet and watch whilst decisions are made - we make speeches, lobby, talk to the media and protest to ensure our voices are heard. In these prezis, we've included issues that are important for us, with videos and pictures of the inspiring actions youth have taken. We've also tried to cover what happened in recent UN Climate talks and key issues that youth have worked on. Hopefully you will find this informative and inspiring!
By the end of this, the aim is for you to understand this:
And use this knowledge to change things!
There are 5 Modules that we will cover:
1) The Convention- a Foundation
2) The story so far.
3) A Global Climate Treaty
4) Cooperation and Contention
5) YOUNGO and Friends!
Before we start, make a cup of tea, and turn on your headphones!
Module 1
: The Convention- an overview.
We'll start with the UNFCCC, giving an introduction to the convention and its basic structure. We'll also throw in some examples of great youth engagement with the process. Enjoy!
Module 2: Kyoto, Equity and Doha
We'll begin with the first binding agreement, what happened in Durban and then Doha and Warsaw on the road to Paris. And of course some legendary youth actions.
Module 4: Friends & Foes
Now we've learnt all of the UNFCCC policies, let's think about the personalities, groups and their influence in the process. We'll start with the Secretariat and end with your very own Youth Constituency.
5) The Whole Lot. This will take you through the whole structure of the UNFCCC and the groups that act within it. Be patient, have lots of cups of tea ready, and be prepared for an amazing journey...
6) Explore on your own.
I'd recommend doing this if you've already been through the modules and you know your way round. It's good for reminding yourself of how everything relates. Go wild!
We're done! And here's what you can look forward to next time...
Module 3: Cooporation and Contention
We need a fair, ambitious and binding agreement on climate change. This module introduces us to the way the UN is trying to achieve this, the variety of stumbling points and the way young people are putting pressure on the key issues...
By UKYCC and friends over the years,

international.team@ukycc.org - email us questions!

www.ukycc.org
Thanks to everyone who made the movies and pictures and thanks to the International Youth Climate Movement for making the change happen!
End of module 1. I hope you found it useful.
Coming up next...
Module 2: The story so far.
We'll look at how the UN Climate Talks started and pick out some key moments since the first COP. And of course some legendary youth actions!
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This cool video summarizes some of the key incidents from Cancun at COP16. Like always at the UNFCCC things are rarely straight forward. Bolivia and some other countries refused to sign the Cancun Accord which meant that consensus was not reached. This annoyed some people at the talks who wanted an agreement to be reached. Other people at the talks supported Bolivia because they felt the agreement was too weak. This is a balance between finding consensus, meaningful emissions reductions and progress that features often in UN climate change talks.
You can keep up to date with UNFCCC communications at their website -  www.unfccc.int
UNFCCC Twitter - @unfccc
Facebook - www.facebook.com/UNclimatechange
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
It is useful to remember what UNFCCC is tasked with achieving…

Hello!
Youth stage an action on coal at COP 19 in Warsaw.
Full transcript