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APA Citation Style

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Ana Roeschley

on 12 August 2015

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Transcript of APA Citation Style

Title Page
APA Style

Parts of an APA Paper
In-text Citations: Basics
In-text Citations: Formatting Quotations
References: Basics
Making the References List
Student Outcomes

General Format
General Format
What is APA?
In-text Citations:
The American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is the most commonly used format for manuscripts in the social sciences.

APA regulates:
In-text citations

Your essay should:

be typed and double-spaced be printed on standard-sized paper (8.5”x11”)

use 1” margins on all sides

use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman or a similar font

include a page header (title) in the upper left-hand of every page and a page number in the upper right-hand side of every page

Your essay should include three major sections:

Page header:
(use Insert Page Header)
title flush left + page number flush right.

(in the upper half of the page, centered)
name (no title or degree) + affiliation (university, etc.)

Abstract Page
Page header: do NOT include “Running head:”

Abstract: centered, at the top of the page

Write a 150- to 250- word summary of your paper in an accurate, concise, and specific manner.
Main Body (Text)
Number the first text page as page number 2

Type and center the title of the paper centered, at the top of the page

Type the text double-spaced with all sections following each other without a break

Identify the sources you use in the paper in parenthetical in-text citations

Format tables and figures

References Page
Center the title (References) at the top of the page. Do not bold it.

Double-space reference entries

Flush left the first line of the entry and indent subsequent lines

Order entries alphabetically by the author’s surnames

In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper.

Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis:

the author’s name and the date of publication

for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number

When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information.

Caruth (1996) has stated that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).

Provide the author’s last name and the year of
publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase.

Though feminist studies focus solely on women's
experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 1975).

Include the author’s name in a signal phrase followed by the year of publication in parenthesis.

Recently, the history of warfare has been
significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987),
Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects.

When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation:

According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate
(1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's
responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).

In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase
In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase
In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase
In-text Citations: A Work of Unknown Author
When citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title in the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters in quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports.

According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008), …
(“Indiana,” 2008)

In-text Citations: Organization
When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation.
The data collected by the Food and Drug
Administration (2008) confirmed that…

If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed…
FDA’s experts tested…

In-text Citations: The same last name/the same author
When citing authors with the same last names, use first initials with the last names.

(B. Kachru, 2005; Y. Kachru, 2008)

When citing two or more works by the same author published in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year of publication to order the references.

Smith’s (1998a) study of adolescent immigrants…
In-text Citations: Personal communication
When citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.

A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students
had difficulties with APA style (personal
communication, November 3, 2002).

(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4,

In-text Citations: Electronic sources
When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading.

According to Smith (1997), ... (Mind over Matter
section, para. 6).

Invert authors’ names (last name first followed by initials: “Smith, J.Q.”)

Alphabetize reference list entries the last name of the first author of each work

Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.

References: Basics
Capitalize all major words in journal titles

Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals

Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections
APA is a complex system of citation. When compiling the reference list, the strategy below might be useful:
1. Identify the type of source: Is it a book? A
journal article? A webpage?

2. Find a sample of citing this type of source in
the APA Manual or in the OWL APA Guide:

3. “Mirror” the sample

4. Make sure that the entries are listed in the alphabetical
order and the subsequent lines are indented (Recall
References: Basics)

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Huston-Tillotson Citation Library Guide: http://htu.libguides.com/citation

The Purdue OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu

APA Resources
Adapted from Purdue OWL

Students will become familiar with the APA format.
Students will be able to identify the relevant information about their sources in order to assemble a correct citation in APA format.
How do you cite this?
10 Best Practices for Business Student Internships.

Reding, Kurt F.
O’Bryan, David

Strategic Finance. Oct2013, Vol. 95 Issue 10, p43-48.

Document Type:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article.
Title of Periodical
, volume number(issue number), pages.
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