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History of Education in Mexico

A review of education in Mexico, and the politics that lead up to what the educational system is like there today.

Jonathan Dardon

on 15 June 2010

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Transcript of History of Education in Mexico

Mexico Quick Facts:
Total Population: 112,468,855 (July 2010 est.)
-Median age: 26.7 years
-Net Migration: -3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)

-GDP: $1.482 trillion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 12;
-GDP per capita: $13,500 (2009 est.);
-reported unemployment rate: 5.6% (2009 est.); note: underemployment may be as high as 25%;
-Population under poverty line: 18.2% using food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2008);
-20.667 million telephone landlines in use;
-79.4 million cellular phones (2009);
-Internet users: 23.26 million (2008)
Ethnic Composition:
-mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%,
-Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%,
-white 9%,
-other 1%
-Spanish only 92.7%,
-Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%,
-indigenous only 0.8%,
-unspecified 0.8%;
-note - indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)

-Roman Catholic 76.5%,
-Protestant 6.3% (Pentecostal 1.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%),
-other 0.3%,
-unspecified 13.8%,
-none 3.1% (2000 census)
-Education: 5.5% of GDP (2005) (49th in the world)
-agriculture: 4%
-industry: 31%
-services: 65% (2009 est.)
Literacy 91% Chronology Of Education System of Education Pedagogs and Pedagogy in Mexico Jacinta Sánchez García Paulo Freire Pre-School
4 kinds: general, indigenous, community courses
In 2005/2006 compulsory for age 4 and up
In 2007/2008 compulsory for age 3 and up Primary School (Primaria)

Primary Schools are divided into public and private schools. There are four categories within the public sector of government-funded schools: General schools, bilingual/bicultural schools, locally governed schools (state not federal), and primary school for adults.
Middle School (Secundaria)

-Telesecundaria, (middle school by satellite television.)
-General middle school,
-technical/vocational middle school - additional skills certificate in areas such as industry, agriculture, fishing, and/or forestry. (27% of students)
-The Workers' Middle School (secundaria para trabajadores) also referred to Night School, aimed at older learners and is usually arranged by employers with large numbers of employees. Programs provide workers with specific technical skills necessary to do their jobs and also with literacy and numeracy skills.
High School (Bachillerato)
Academic and Vocational courses
3 different types of education for higher learning:
-General schools
-academic pre-professional qualifications schools,
-vocational schools

U Propedéutico
N -Bachilleratos de Universidades
I -Colegios de Bachilleres
V -Bachilleratos Estatales
E -Preparatorias Federales por Cooperación
R -Bachilleratos Federalizados
S -Bachilleratos Privados con Normatividad Propia
I -Centros de Estudios de Bachillerato
T -Bachilleratos de Arte
A -Bachilleratos Militares
-Centros de Bachillerato Tecnológico, Industrial y Servicios
-Centros de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos
T -Centros de Bachillerato Tecnológico Agropecuario
E -Escuelas de Bachillerato Técnico
C -Centro de Estudios Tecnológicos del Mar
N -Bachilleratos de Institutos Tecnológicos
O -Centros de Enseñanza Técnica Industrial
L -Centros de Bachillerato Tecnológico Forestal
Ó -Bachilleratos Técnicos de Arte
G Terminal
I -Escuelas de Estudios Técnicos
C -Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica
A -Centros de Estudios Tecnológicos Industriales y de Servicios
-Centros de Estudios de Arte

Some 2-pronged high schools prepare students for entering into higher education and also provide graduates with technical training coupled with the diploma of a ‘skilled technician.’

Public and private high schools affiliated with tertiary institutions.

Polytechnic High Schools - provide students with specialized instruction in math, science, and computers and in tourism.
Private schools:
Catholic schools
Bilingual in English/Spanish
or in Mexico City English/German or English/French

Open System:
A system for those wishing to return to studies, who for whatever reason did not complete their education. System based on self-study: on their own time they study and then take the exams for qualification.
1921- 1997
Born in Sao Paul, Sao Paul, Brazil
Educator, author
Known for Theories of education
Influenced by Jean-Paul Sartre, Erich Fromm, Louis Althusser, Herbert Marcuse, Karl Marx, Ivan Illich
Influenced Peter McLaren, Henry Giroux, Ivan Illich, and Jacinta Sánchez
The book by which he is known: Pedagogy of the Oppressed published in 1968

‘To be a good liberating educator,’ Paulo Freire wrote to literacy teachers in Chile in 1971, ‘you need above all to have faith in human beings. You need to love. You must be convinced that the fundamental effort of education is to help with the liberation of people, never their domestication. You must be convinced that when people reflect on their domination they begin a first step in changing their relationship to the world’

His theory was much that 'education is not reducible to a mechanical method of instruction. Learning is not a quantity of information to be memorized or a package of skills to be transferred to students. Classrooms die as intellectual centers when they become delivery systems for lifeless bodies of knowledge. Instead of transferring facts and skills from teacher to students, a Freirean class invites students to think critically about subject matter, doctrines, the learning process itself, and their society.'

"Freedom is acquired by conquest, not by gift. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly. Freedom is not an ideal located outside of man; nor is it an idea which becomes myth. It is rather the indispensable condition for the quest for human completion."

Born 1956 in Santiago Yosondúa, Oaxaca, Mexico
Retired Bilingual/Bicultural Instructor and Theorist
Philosophy based on Paulo Freire's
Believes in "educating to transform"
It is necessary to maintain as an objective in educational plans and programs the creation of critical thinking students who are reflective and self-sufficient in order to apply knowledge into practice
Believes in combining practices and methodologies in order to attain best practice (i.e. used analytical and phonetic approached to reading and writing).
It is important to be aware of the child's environment, in order to incorporate the child's life experience and strengths in instructional strategies
It is important to go from theory to practice and then from practice to theory
Author of My First Day of Classes; part of an anthology that is required reading in bilingual/bicultural pedagogy in all of Mexico

CIA, . "Mexico." CIA World Factbook. CIA, Central Intelligence Agency, 27 may 2010. Web. 13 Jun 2010. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html#top>.

Wink, Joan, Joseph Watras, R.R. Company, Biblioteka Bibliograficzny, Kas Mazurek, Margret Winzer, and Czesław Majorek. Education in a global society. Allyn & Bacon, 2000. Print

Gamboa, Alina, and Caroline Linse. "Mexican Education: A Melding of History, Cultural Roots, and Reforms." Schooling Around the World Debates, Challenges, and Practices. Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Education Inc., 2006. Print.

McLaren, Peter; Leonard, Peter. Paulo Freire: A Critical Encounter. Taylor & Francis, 26 November 1992. 14 June 2010 http://0-lib.myilibrary.com.darius.uleth.ca/Browse/open.asp?ID=10431&loc=194

Lopez Beltran, Ivan. "La educación de México a través de los siglos." Liberacion. la Universidad Vasco de Quiroga, 2007. Web. 14 Jun 2010. <http://www.liber-accion.org/articulos/26/194>.

Alvarez Mendiola, German (et. al). Sistema Educativo Nacional. Mexico D.F., Mexico: Secretaria de Educacion Publica, 1994. Print.

Martínez Rizo, Felipe. "Reformas educativas: mitos y realidades." Revista Iberoamericana de Educacion. la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos (OEI), 2001. Web. 14 Jun 2010. <http://www.rieoei.org/rie27a02.htm>.

Comunicacion Social, . "Concluye la Semana Nacional de la Evaluación ENLACE, educación básica 2010." Secretaria de Educacion Publica. Secretaria de Educacion Publica, 26-Abril-2010. Web. 12 Jun 2010. <http://www.sep.gob.mx/wb/sep1/C0560410>.

Notimex, Universal. "Es reforma educativa una oportunidad para renovar educación: SEP." El Universal. El Universal, Jueves 24 de mayo de 2007. Web. 10 Jun 2010. <http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/427110.html>. References
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