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Transcript of HS
1958 - 1960 Faculty of the University of California
1960 - 1970 University of Chicago
1960 The Religion of Java
1963 Agricultural Involution
1963 Peddlers and Princes
1965 The Social History of an Indonesian Town
1968 Islam Observed
1980 Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society Islam Observed Religion as Cultural System:
Clifford Geertz He compare two kind of Islam as it exist in two countries:
Indonesia and Morocco Humanistic Studies he is Conclusion
World View and Ethos Significance Indonesia Morroco Religion= As a cultural system Consist of a world view & ethos that combine to reinforce each other A Set of belief people Real
Forth Values Three things that Geertz notice The Particularity of each culture (Indonesia & Marocco) The "thick description" of the religion. Geertz does Venture to suggest at least the prospect of more general conclusion have similarities The Classical Style of Islam Traditional Societies Colonies of Western Power Recently won independence Morocco Indonesia Took shape as a Muslim Nation during 1050 to 1450 The two main figures: Warrior/Strongman and The Mystic/Muslim Holy man Idris II as Sacred Figure: Direct discent from the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
First Moroccan King.
Built the city of Fez. Islam did begin to reach Indonesia in 1300s through trading. Blend with Hindu, Buddha and animist which stressed meditation, inwardness, and personal composure. Geertz find that culture is not only expression of social needs and economic tension, but also present in every crevice and corner. Geertz is interested in considering the cultural dimension of religion. For Geertz, culture means a pattern of meaning or ideas which is carried out in symbols, where it is people knowledge of life in expressing their attitude. The significance of religion as a cultural system:
It is about anything that carries and convey to people an idea.
It makes people feel things and want to do things.
It makes people to have motivations and goals in thinking which is good and right.
It tries to give ultimate explanation of the world.
It marks out sphere of life that has a special status. Geertz and other theorists
The interpretative anthropologist Critique:
Anthropology as a science
Interpreting religion THANK YOU! GEERTZ was influenced by American Social Theory: Parsons and Weber.
Weber focused on relation between religion and society.
Based on Weber, cultures are product of human “action”. Action is happened accord with certain ideal, attitudes, and values.
Parsons stated that human group exists on three levels of organization:
Individual personalities shaped and governed by a social system shaped and controlled by cultural system.
Cultural system is everything that has meaning which outside the mind which works inwardly to shape attitude and guide action. Thick description of a human behavior is one that explains not just the behavior, but its context as well, such that the behavior becomes meaningful to an outsider.
Culture is socially established structures of meaning in terms of which people do such things as signal conspiracies and join them or perceive insult and answer them.
Culture will not always be consistent.
Interpretation always a matter of “guessing at meaning, assessing the guesses, and drawing explanatory conclusions.” American Social Theory Culture and Interpretation;
model of “thick description” Both nations are "mystical", because they find religious truth through immediate contact with God. But there are significant differences, which Geertz choose to explain through the stories of two legendary religious leaders. ISlam in Indonesia is flexible Indonesia: Sunan Kalijaga Marocco: Sidi Lahsen Lyusi