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Cell catalog

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Kim Huynh

on 15 October 2015

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Transcript of Cell catalog

#1 Nucleus

#2 Plasma Membrane

#3 Golgi Complex
#4 Mitochondria
#5 Microtubules and Microfiliments



#6 Cilia and Flagella


#7 Nucleolus

#8 Endoplasmic Reticulum


#9 Lysosomes

#10 Chloroplasts

#11 Chromosomes

#12 Ribosomes

#13 Vacuoles
#14 Centrosomes

#15 Centrioles
Fall 2015
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The largest organelle
Control area of the cell
Location to DNA and RNA replication
Where DNA is transcribed to RNA
Enclosed by 2 membranes - two lipid bilayers - that together form the nuclear envelope, which separates DNA transcription from translation
5 um in diameter

to hereditary information
- A region where ribosomes begin to be assembled from RNA and proteins
- 25% of the volume of nucleus
Nature Cooperation

Converts the energy from organic molecule into useful energy for the cell - ATP
The outer membrane has large pores, and most substances can pass through it
The inner membranes separates the bochemical processes of the mitochondrion from the surrounding cytosol. It is folded into structures called cristae, and fluid-filled region inside the inner membrane is reffered to as the mitochondrial matrix
Contains many enzymes for energy metabolism, as well as DNA and ribosomes for the synthesis of small proportion of the mitochondrial proteins
1.5 um in diameter
2-8 um in length
- Carry hydrolases (digestive enzymes)
- Make up the cell's clean up crew helping to keep the cytoplasm clear of unwanted flotsam
- Contain hydrolytic enzymes that only function at acidic pH, which is enclosed inside the lumen of the lysosomes.

1 um
- Two components: flattened membranous sacs (cisternae) and small membrae-enclosed vesciles.
- Once the ribosomes on the rough ER have completed synthesizing proteins, the Golgi complex modifies, process, and sorts the products.
- A packaging and distribution center for materials to be sent out of the cell. The final product is packaged in vesicles, which carry the products to the plasma membrane.
- Involves in the production of lysosomes.
- Adds some carbohydrates to proteins
- Where some polysaccharides for the plant cell are synthesized
1 um in diameter

Site of protein synthesis, where the information encoded by the nucleic acids directs the sequential linking of amino acids to form proteins
Manufacture all the proteins required by the cell or secreted by the cell
Composed of RNA and proteins
Float in the cell or attached to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)


25 nm in diameter
Welcome to Protein Factory
Most active during cellular division. When a cell prois divides, the centrioles produce microtubes, which pull the replicated chromosomes apart and move them to opposite ends of the cell.
Common in animal cells, not found in plant cells
0.5 um in length
- Fluid-filled sacs

- Store water, food, wastes, salts, or pigments
Plant cell only
Involves in photosynthesis
Contains chlorophyl, the light-capturing pigment that gives plants their characteristics their green color
Acts as a selectively permeable barrier
preventing some substances from crossing it
permitting others to enter and leave the cell to maintain a stable internal environment
Communicates with adjacent cells and receives signals from the environment
Binds and adheres to adjacent cells or to a surface, contributing to a cell' shape

Fundamental structural element of the spindle apparatus
Framework on which motility is generated
Define axis of division and cytokinesis

- Help the entire cell or parts of the
cell to move
- Determine and stablize the
cell shape

In a nucleus of a cell
Long aggregate of genes that carry DNA
Formed from condensed chromatin
Non-duplicated - single stranded chromosome , connects p arm and q arm
Duplicated - two identical chromosomes that are connected at the centromere region
The end region is called a teolomere, consists of repeating non-coding DNA sequence that gets shorter as a cell divides.
STRUCTURE: Hair-like organelle
used for locomotion and for moving water and mucus by many multicellular organisms.
Beat in rhymthical waves to carry foreign particles away from the lungs
The appendages that some prokaryotes use to swim
Causes the motion of cell
Consists of phospholipid bilayers with proteins
A unique oblong shape and a characteristic double membrane consisting of an inner portion and an outer portion
Round structures composed of two subunits

Small, paired cylindrical structures found within microtube organizing centers (MTOs)
A continuous channel that extends into many regions of the cytoplasm
Two types: rough ER, the region that is studded with ribosomes and smooth ER, the region that lacks ribosomes.


Rough ER

A protein enters the RER only if it contains a specific short sequence of amino acids that signals the ribosomes to attach to RER
Once inside RER, proteins are chemically modified to alter their functions and to chemically "tag" them for delivery to specific cellular destinations
After being generated, proteins are transported to other locations in the cell. All secreted proteins pass through the RER.
Smooth ER
Breaks down toxic chemicals
Makes the targeted molecules more polar to be removed easily
Site for glycogen degradation in animal cells
Site for synthesis of lipids and steroids

Caution: Animals Only!

Composed of two centrioles at right angles to each other.
Near the nucleus in the cytoplasm
Regulates the cell division cycle, the stages which lead up to cell division.
Copied only once per cell cycle so that each daughter cell inherits one centrosome, containing two centrioles.
Replicates during the interphase of the cell cycle. he Migrate to opposite poles of the cells during the prophase of mitosis. The mitotic spindle then forms between the two centrosomes. Upon division, each daughter cell receives one centrosome.

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