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Transcript of Kenyan Independance
and Anuj Singh Kenyan Independence Economic resistance to colonialism Under British rule Kenya was changed completely by political/social/ economic policies. Huge fertile land could only be owned by whites. Political resistance to colonialism Cultural resistance to colonialism Kenya was finally freed from British colonial rule after 68 years, in 1963. The independence of Kenya was a great victory for Kenya, and after 49 years, the literacy rate went up around 85%. Colonialism in Kenya started after the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885. Colonialism in Kenya started after the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885. The Germans established a protectorate over some of the lands of the Sultanate of Zanzibar’s possessions in 1885, which included Zanzibar and the Indian coast of Tanzania and Kenya. The British, wary of German expansion, established the British East Africa Company, claiming the interior of Uganda and Kenya. The British and Germans soon reached an agreement, giving the British the coastal Kenyan lands, and formally set respected borders between British East Africa and Tanganyika. Africans in Kenya were then forced to work as wage workers. Kenya took a stand and decided to deal with these political and economic problems. The Nandi resistance was then formed. The Nandi resistance was formed when the British came to Kenya When the British executed the leader of the Nandi resistance, Nandi Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoie, caused the Africans to seek revenge and resist British rule. Africans in Kenya then led protests, and demands for independence, among other things. Soon all the tribes in Kenya were resisting British rule. The Nandi resistance was formed when the British came to South Africa, and this made the Nandi tribe view this as a threat to their dominance, as they believed they were the most powerful tribe in South Africa. Background on Kenya's
history under colonialism A major political resistance by the Africans in Kenya was the Mau Mau revolt. It was a political conflict that occurred between 1952 and 1960. In July 1953, 100 Mau Mau suspects were killed in the Kikuyu tribes. Than in March 1954, the British planned to end the Mau Mau uprising once and for all. When the rebel leader Dedan Kimathi was captured on October 21, 1956 that had been an ultimate defeat for the Mau Mau and also ended the British military campaign. African nationalist leaders then later agreed to take part in Kenya's government. Many cultures just learned to live with the Europeans’ harsh rule, while others fought back in hopes of keeping their independence. As stated before, the British built the Kenya-Uganda railway, which passed through the country. Some Kenyan tribes didn’t like the idea of their country being crowded with railroads and trains. The Nnadi were the most notable people to resist against the British. The resistance lasted about ten years, from 1890 or 1900, but the British still eventually built the railroad. During the construction of the railroad, a large amount of Indian people came into Kenya to help with the building. The African and Indian people there today have formed the religious groups now known as Sikh and Ismaili Muslim. The quality of education, infrastructure, development, health, water and sanitation were greatly improved. Many years after Kenya achieved its independence from the United Kingdom, poverty, illiteracy and disease continue to drop in the country. Even though they have tons of room for progress, as a country, they have bettered themselves. Although their literacy rate is higher than almost all African countries, quality education is hard to come by. Most students graduate with a degree, but are unable to apply their education to help better their living conditions. Still Kenya strives to become a better country overall. The Kenyan African Union’s attempt at self-government was unsuccessful. However, African resistance to colonial policies became more militant. The Scramble for Africa took a huge toll on Africa; in less than 20 years, 90% Africa was under the rule of Europe. World War II marked the end of European imperialism in Africa. Since most of Europe was involved in the war, European colonies in Africa were also involved. During the war there were many scuffles, bombings, and fights. All of these fights had guns and ammunition that cost lots of money and lots of people. Kenya gained its independence on December 12, 1963. The reason that they gained independence fairly quickly was because the British lost extreme amounts of money during World War II, especially because they were bombed multiple times by the Germans. The Blitz, a large bombing on London by the Germans, was a huge reason that Kenya was the 31st African country to gain independence. The Blitz killed thousands people, and completely destroyed many businesses and houses. This cost extreme amounts of money to rebuild, so Britain went into a huge economic crisis, so it made it very hard for the British to fight the rebellions and keep their dominance, but their loss of money made it nearly impossible. Major People Involved in Kenyan Independence Kenya was finally freed from british colonial rule after 68 years, in 1963. Even though the independence of Kenya was a great victory for Kenya, they still, after 49 years, have not met their expectations. Many things were improved, however, the quality of education, infrastructure, development, health, water and sanitation were lacking. Many years after Kenya achieved its independence from the United Kingdom, poverty, illiteracy and disease continue to thrive in the country. Even though there has been some progress, much more could have been accomplished. Still, Kenyans are fighting with the same basic problems that they have dealt with for a while. Overview of the nation’s history since independence After Kenya gained its independence from the British in 1963, Jomo Kenyatta, leader of the Kenya African National Union, or KANU, became the first president of the newly independent Kenya. Under his rule, Kenya’s economy flourished due to Kenyatta’s adoption of Western capitalist policies and foreign aid. However, Kenyatta was corrupt; he favored his own Kikuyu people and distributed land and money to them. Additionally, he and his successor, Daniel Arap Moi, banned all other political parties, making Kenya a one-party state until this policy was repealed in 1991. Kenyatta was succeeded as president by Daniel Arap Moi upon Kenyatta’s death in 1978. He turned Kenya into a dictatorship, and gave aid and powerful positions to his own Kalenjin people instead of the Kikuyu people. When the leader of the Nandi Resistance, Nandi Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoie, this caused Africans to leade protest, demands for independence, etc. Eventually, more African tribes in Kenya resisted British rule. This is Kenya Challenges after the
nation became independent In 1896, construction started on the Kenya-Uganda railroad, connecting Lake Victoria in the interior of Uganda to Mombasa in Kenya. The purpose of this railroad was to expand and develop their inland lands. The railroad was significant because it opened up the fertile highlands of Kenya for white settlers. This drove the Kikuyu people out of the area, resulting in tension among the Kikuyu and the white settlers, which eventually spiraled into the Mau Mau Rebellion. International events that influenced the independence movement After World War II, Kenyans began to have stronger feelings for independence. Some important people in the Kenyan independence movement were Harry Thuku and Jomo Kenyatta. Harry Thuku was the first pan-Kenyan nationalist to protest against the white-settler dominance in the government. His attempt at protesting resulted in colonial authorities arresting him in 1922. His arrest caused Africans to protest outside the police station for his release. He was released after seven years because he agreed to cooperate with the colonials, and he had to step down from being the leader of the Kikuyu people. Jomo Kenyatta took his place. Following World War II, Kenyatta became an outspoken nationalist, demanding Kenyan self-government and independence from Great Britain. Along with Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Kenyatta organized the fifth Pan-African Congress in Great Britain in 1945. Jomo Kenyatta became president of the first colony-wide African political organization, KANU. KANU’s attempt at self-government was unsuccessful. However, African resistance to colonial policies became more militant. THE END Because of the corruption and opposite ideals (democracy vs. dictatorship), Kenya’s economy worsened, effectively undoing Kenyatta’s work and leaving many people in poverty. When riots broke out, Moi was forced to allow multiple political parties to exist, making Kenya a democracy, and Moi was banned from running in the 2002 elections. Moi chose a candidate, Uhuru Kenyatta, son of Jomo Kenyatta, to run in the elections, but his opposition, Mwai Kibaki, crushed him. Uhuru Kenyatta is now the current president of Kenya, having won the presidential election in 2013.