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parmis beyzaei

on 1 June 2014

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Transcript of Bacteria


A plasmid is a loop of DNA.
Are separate from the main chromosome and that contain genes
can split from the chromosome and rejoin it
may be transferred from one cell the another during conjugation

Bacteria Kingdom Characteristics
• Simplest organisms
• Very small
• Lack membrane bound organelles inside the cell
• Have few internal structures that are distinguishable under a microscope
• Genetic information is in a circular loop called a plasmid (instead of having chromosomal DNA)
• Strong cell walls: resistant to environmental changes

Asexual Reproduction
Since bacteria lack nuclei, they do not reproduce by mitosis or meiosis.
reproduce through asexual process of binary fission
Binary Fission is the form of reproduction used by most prokaryotes in which a cell divides into two genetically identical cells

Cell passes DNA to another cell by means of a conjugation tube (sex pilus).
The sharing of a plasmid from one bacterium to another
Physical Structure
Use a container to collect water from the marsh where you are obtaining the sample

Be careful to grab the right about of water

Make sure not to breathe on the sample and close it quickly to ensure that it won’t be contaminated

How to Collect a Bacteria Sample

Some technologies associated with the study of bacteria are petri dishes and microscopes used to observe the bacteria.

Some uses for bacteria are in antibiotics, mining, vitamins, etc

Technological Perspective

Bacteria can break down organic materials

They also release carbon, hydrogen, and other elements into the environment

Bacteria and the Environment

Food spoilage and disease are bacteria carrying out their lives

Bacteria aren’t dangerous unless you trap them (canned food, etc)

Humans can ensure that the bacteria are killed by heating food at high temperatures

Bacteria and Human Health

A Gram stain is used to identify bacteria and put them into two groups

A stain seperates into two groups:
-Gram positive
-Gram negative

The stains separate based on the cell wall’s response to the stain

Classifying and Identifying Bacteria

Bacteria obtains energy

Bacteria performs photosynthesis

Cyanobacteria are best known for photosynthesis and contain chlorophyll

Comparing Nutrition

Common Forms of Bacteria: Coccus
cocci (plural) are a micro-organism whose overall morphology is
or nearby so
Diplococci - two associated cocci
Streptococci - chains of cocci
Staphylococci - clusters of cocci
Sarcinae - several cocci having a cuboidal cell arrangement
Common Forms of Bacteria: Bacillus
Bacilli (plural) are a micro- organism whose overall morphology is rod-shaped
Bacilli - rods
Fusiform - tapered end
Clavate or Coryneform - club shaped end
Vibrios - comma shaped
Spirilla - snakelike
1. As cell grows, it makes copy of its original, single chromosome
2. When it reaches a certain size, it elongates, separating the original chromosome and its copy
3. Cell builds a partition between them, called a
3. Original cell splits into two, smaller, genetically identical cells
Bacteria occupy environments with oxygen (aerobic) and without oxygen (anaerobic)
Most bacteria are
which are organisms that live in habitats characterized by moderate conditions
There are also bacteria that are
which is an organism that lives in habitats characterized by extreme conditions
Bacterial Structure
Societal Perspective
-Bacteria carrying out their normal life functions results in:
Food spoilage
The spread of disease
-Many bacteria are also very beneficial
Food spoilage
-Food poisoning can cause nausea or even death in humans.
Ex. Botulism caused by a species of anaerobic bacteria. (Clostridium Botulinum)
-Ways to prevent food poisoning is by killing the bacterial endospores.
Food must be heated under high pressure at temperatures above the boiling point of water
Side note:
a compound that
occurs throughout the nervous
system, in which it functions
as a neurotransmitter.
a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
The spread of disease and infection caused by bacteria
Bacteria are small, usually single celled, organisms
Act as pathogens within the body of living animals.
The body's immune system can fight against bacteria by engulfing the bacterial cell.
Bacteria are only a problem when they produce too quickly
Examples include:
Strep throat,
whooping cough
otitis media (inner ear infection)
bacterial meningitis
Strep throat is a condition caused by the Streptococcus pyogens a Gram-positive bacterium that colonizes in the throat lining.
If not treated with antibiotics the bacteria can be life threatening because if it gets into the bloodstream it can migrate to other parts of the body.
Strep Throat
Sinusitis is a general term describing the inflammation of the nasal cavity.
It can be caused by several different genera of bacteria depending on which sinus area is infected.
Beneficial Bacteria
-Most bacteria are not harmful and in fact many bacteria are actually beneficial.
Ex. Bacteria on the skin keep the skin healthy.
Bacteria in the gut help digest the food.
Bacteria in the soil help plants grow.
Bacteria in the water help clean the water.
Environmental perspective
Bacteria have had positive and negative effects on the environment
Positive affects
Some types of bacteria can clean up oil spills
Bacteria with nanowires not only digest toxic waste but they produce electrical energy.
These bacteria can also consume radioactive contamination. For example uranium.
Some bacteria can even break down plastic. Non-biodegradable plastic bags can now be broken down.
Negative affects
Farm waste
Farms produce millions of tons of manure every year. Animals like chickens contain harmful bacterias in their manure that can cause diseases.
Those harmful bacterias being around all that farm food we consume may cause an epidemic in some sort of chicken feces bacteria related disease
Some bacterias are even polluting the waters and making it unsafe to drink.
Humans effect on Bacteria
Humans created antibiotics which are used to prevent bacteria from spreading.
Therefore killing many of them
Changing their gene pool in the process
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