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Psychodynamic and Bowen Family Therapies
Transcript of Psychodynamic and Bowen Family Therapies
Cause --> Effect
Limited to Individual Unconscious --> Human Behavior Form Attachments Historical Origin Dysfunction Childhood Expense
Time Consuming Need above avgerage intelligence
Able to think abstract Lacks Empirical Research Murray Bowen One of the First system based family therapies. "Transgenerational Family Therapy" Biography
Oldest of 5
From Tight knit family
Served 5 years active duty in the U.S. army
Worked with families (w/schizophrenic children, "mother-patient symbiosis" 1913-1990 Premises Therapy and Theory are Intertwined Conscious and Unconscious processes are the focus of interventions Focus on Interpersonal and Intrapersonal relationships Change is gradual and requires hard work with a heavy investment of time and resources Concepts Differentiation of Self
Nuclear Family Emotional Process
Multigenerational Transmission Process
Emotional Process in Society Four Factors Influencing Differentiation Emotional Reactivity Cutoff Fusion I-Position Techniques Genograms Going Home Again DeTriangulation Person to Person Relationships Differentiation of Self Asking Questions Therapist Responsibilities Be Differentiated
Discourage wallowing in emotionalism and confusion
Criticisms Too male oriented and conservative Requires a substantial amount of time and resources Lack of research supporting claim that Bowenian Theory is universal Psychological well being in adulthood may be affected by other factors outside of family, i.e. peer relationships, employment Examines history before dealing with present The End! Psychodynamic and Bowen Family Therapies Psychodynamic and Bowen Family Therapies began developing in 1950’s
Founders included Nathan Ackerman, Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy, and James Framo and Murray Bowen Originally educated to use Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory with individuals Principles of psychoanalysis are a shared source which family therapies were developed Ackerman, Nagy, Framo, and Bowen applied Freud’s theory to families belief that changes in families and their members occur best when the family is examined in the context of its history and development Similarities include belief that “past is active in the present” Stress importance of social and historical data in the lives of families Psychodynamic theory encompasses more than psychoanalytic theory applied to families Major Theroist -Nathan Ackerman
-Norman Paul, Donald Williamson, Robin Skynner, and Lyman Wynne Nathan Ackerman 1908-1971 Initially educated as child psychiatrist Followed the traditional psychiatric approach, seeing one patient at a time In 1930’s became interested in families influence on mental health Interest sparked by families in Western Pennsylvania Began seeing who families at Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas Especially interested in applying psychoanalytical principles to family units In 1950’s & 60’s became leading family therapist on the East Coast Opened Family Mental Health Clinic at Jewish Family Services in New York in 1957 Established Family Institute in New York in 1960 Contributions leading pioneer of family therapy
documented many of his sessions, publishing transcripts
contributions to literature
Ability to attract interest to his work and influenced many psychodynamic oriented practitioners to treat individuals and families together as a system
Established the American Academy of Psychoanalysis in 1955
Recognized as being initiator of concepts such as scapegoating and tickling of defenses Premises based on class work of Sigmund Freud as interpreted, modified, and applied to family Freud’s viewed human nature in terms of drive Resolving conflict includes one of two actions (1) Strengthening of defenses against a conflicted wish
(2) Defenses must be relaxed to sufficiently permit some gratification Ackerman set up training and treatment center, Family Institute now known as the Ackerman Institute for the Family in New York City Advocated that accurate understanding of an individual’s unconscious requires an understanding of its context Connection of family context and the unconscious in interlocking pathology Object Relations Theory bridge between classical Freudian theory and family therapy object is something that is loved object relationship refers to “relations between persons involved in ardent emotional attachments” Relationship through generations can be explained Process of splitting occurs with object representations are either all good or all bad Object relation theory in family therapy is that it provides a way to explain reasons for marital choices and family interaction patterns. Stresses the value of working with unconscious forces in individuals and families beyond Freud’s concepts of id, ego, and superego Treatment Techniques Transference
Dream and Daydream Analysis
Focusing on Strengths
Interpretation Role Of Therapist teacher "good enough mother" catalyst