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Fundamentals of Music: Rhythm

This chapter covers the notation of rhythm, plus a few instructions for this class.
by

Douglas Brown

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of Fundamentals of Music: Rhythm

Chapter 1 Rhythm:
Notes and Rests You may recall from the introductory
lecture that notation is the representation of through symbols. sounds and silence In fact, musical notation is actually a written language . Sounds are represented by a system of notes . Let's go into these in detail... Whole note The shape of the note indicates duration . We will discuss duration in more depth in a couple of moments. The whole note has
an open notehead . (That means there's a hole in it.) Half note As its name implies, the duration of the
half note is half the value of a whole note. The half note has
an open notehead
and a stem. Open notehead Stem There are two ways to draw notes with stems. Notice that the stem up is to the stem up stem down of the notehead, and that the stem down is to the . This is actually important to know. right left + = Quarter note Stem Solid notehead The quarter note
has a solid notehead
and a stem. stem up
to the right stem down
to the left + = = The quarter note is half the value of the half note,
and four quarter notes are the same value as one whole note. In case you haven't figured this out yet,
an eighth note is 1/8th the value of a whole note,
and a sixteenth note is... you guessed it,
1/16th the value of a whole note. Eighth note Sixteenth note Eighth note Sixteenth note one flag two flags Eighth notes and sixteenth notes must have
either flags or beams, but not both. Beams are only used with other beamed notes. beamed 8th notes beamed 16th notes one beam two beams Note Values 8th 16th 16th 8th 8th We know that this note is a 16th note its stem is touching two beams. , because = = Rest Values For each note value, there is a corresponding rest value. Notes Rests Whole Half Quarter Eighth Sixteenth Once again, recall that music notation is the representation of sounds and silence in music. Notes represent the sounds , while rests represent the silences . If I played the flute, I would play during the notes,
and not play during the rests. Unlike notes, rests are never beamed together. Assignments There will be other later assignments due this week for the topic on Pitch.
I encourage you to complete these Rhythm assignments as quickly as reasonable. Flags always sit on the right side, whether stems are up or down. Think of the wind as always blowing from the left. All of the flags are blowing to the right. Meter Meter and time are two terms that are used interchangably that mean virtually the same thing. Let's suppose that I am a songwriter. I need a way to tell my performers how fast to go. So I tell them that there are 120 quarter notes in every minute... ...and I do it like this: = 120 Watch this cheesy commercial... This lecture contains audio clips that you are required to listen to. Please make sure the sound is on and that the volume is at an appropriate level. Were you tapping your foot or your hand during the music? If so, you were probably tapping the beat. Let's watch the video again and listen to the beat... quarter note We can feel the beat in this song. The rate is 120 beats per minute. ...or we can say the = 120 Time Signature A time signature consists of two numbers, one over the other. The top number is how many beats are in the measure In dance music, we can often feel the "four-count". Beats are divided into these kinds of groupings called measures . Bar lines show where measures are divided. Bar lines Measure Measure Measure A time signature consists of two numbers, one over the other. A time signature consists of two numbers, one over the other. The top number is how many beats are in the measure The bottom number indicates which note gets the beat The bottom number indicates which note gets the beat So, a indicates that a quarter note gets the beat. indicates that a sixteenth note gets the beat. indicates that an eighth note gets the beat. indicates that a whole note gets the beat. indicates that a half note gets the beat. 4 8 An A 16 A 2 A 1 Here the quarter note gets the beat,
and there are four beats in this measure. The top number is how many beats are in the measure The bottom number indicates which note gets the beat Here the eighth note gets the beat,
and there are three beats in this measure. The top number is how many beats are in the measure The bottom number indicates which note gets the beat Here the half note gets the beat,
and there are six beats in this measure. The bottom number will always be a multiple of 2,
except for the number 1, which indicates a whole note. The Augmentation Dot Many of the notes (and rests)
that you see in music have dots after them. . . . . . Augmentation dots increase the value of the note they follow by 50 percent. + = . + = . then two beats plus 50% (one beat) equals three beats. 2 beats 1 beat 3 beats + = . then two beats plus 50% (one beat) equals three beats. 2 beats 1 beat 3 beats if the quarter note gets the beat, if the eighth note gets the beat, In this example, In this example, then four beats plus 50% (two beats) equals six beats. if the eighth note gets the beat, In this example, + = . 4 beats 2 beats 6 beats So now we have the ability to make all kinds of rhythmic combinations with all different kinds of notes. We can put in any number of notes and rests to fill in each measure. . . . . 4 beats 4 beats 4 beats 4 beats 1½
beats ½
beat 2
beats 1
beat 3
beats 1
beat 2
beats 1
beat 4
beats Four beats in the measure Quarter note gets the beat What if... I want to make a note for a value that makes it cross over a bar line? . 3
beats 2
beats ? Can I do this? Rule: a measure cannot contain more beats than the time signature allows. 4
beats
per
measure ...but we can work around it. Tie - a curved line that combines the values (we'll worry about the "same pitch" part later) 2
beats 2
beats 1
beat etc. tie note total: 3 beats 4 beats Ties do not apply to rests. Remember... Dotted note values are never the
bottom number of a time signature. Therefore... You are now ready to complete the assignments listed
next after this lecture on Blackboard. Feel free to review this material as often as necessary. <END OF PRESENTATION> meter is of two or more notes of the same pitch
Full transcript