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Curriculum: Concepts, Nature and Purpose
These are the fundamental questions in this lesson...
Major Foundation of Curriculum
What is curriculum?
What is its purpose?
What is its nature?
Curriculum from different
point of view
The concept of curriculum is
sometimes characterized as
1. Traditional Point of View of Curriculum
curriculum is that is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for students to learn.
Robert M. Hutchins
views curriculum as permanent studies.
where the rules of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized.
believes that the mission of school should be intellectual training.
curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual discipline of grammar, literature and writing.
discipline is the sole source of curriculum
curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we call subject areas in basic education ( English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others.
2. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum
curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual.
believed that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements.
Caswell and Campbell
viewed curriculum as "all experiences children have under guidance of teachers.
Smith, Stanley and Shores
curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.
curriculum is a dynamic process
to produce positive changes development should be purposeful, planned and progressive.
Ralph Tyler Model - Tyler's Rationale
1. Purpose of the School.
2. Educational experiences related to the purpose.
3. Organization of the experiences.
4. Evaluation of the experiences.
believed that teachers who teach or implement the curriculum should participate in developing it
her advocacy is grassroots approach
These steps are as follows:
1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations. of the larger society.
2.Formulation of learning objectives.
3.Selection of learning content.
4.Organization of learning content.
5.Selection of learning experiences.
6.Organization of learning activities.
7.Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
3 interacting processes in curriculum
Types of Curriculum Operating
Allan Glatthorn describes seven types of curriculum
1. Recommended curriculum
proposed by scholars and professional organizations
2. Written curriculum
appears in school, district, division or country documents
3. Taught curriculum
what teachers implement or deliver in the classrooms and schools
4. Supported curriculum
resources-textbooks, computers, audio-visual materials which support and help in the implementation of curriculum
that is which is tested and evaluated
6. Learned curriculum
.what the students actually learned and what is measured
7. Hidden curriculum
is the unintended curriculum which is not deliberately planned but may modify behavior or influences learning outcome
Two models of curriculum development and concepts
Philosophical Foundations of Curriculum
Philosophy provides educators, teachers, and curriculum makers with framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum in schools
Philosophy of curriculum planner, implementor, evaluator reflects his or her life experiences, common beliefs, social and economic background and situation.
Educational Philosophy - Perennialism
Educational Philosophy - Essentialism
Educational Philosophy - Progressivism
Educational Philosophy - Reconstructionism
Four Educational Philosophies
Aim of education - To educate the rational person; to cultivate the intellect.
Role of Education - Teachers help students think with reason.
Focus in the curriculum - Classical subjects, literary analysis and curriculum is constant
Curriculum trend - Use of great books and return to liberal arts
Aim of Education - To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person.
Role of education - The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject or field of specialization
Focus in the curriculum - Essentials skills of the 3 R's and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math and Foreign Language
Curriculum trends - Excellence in education, back to basics and cultural literacy
Aim of education - To promote democratic and social living
Role of education - Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing
Focus in the curriculum - Subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum is focus on students interest, human problems and affairs
Curriculum trends - School reforms, relevant and contextualized curriculum, humanistic education
Aim of Education- To improve and reconstruct society
Education for change
Role of education - Teachers act as agents of change and reform in various educational projects including research
Focus in education - Focus on present and future trends and issues of national and international interest
Curriculum trends- equality of educational opportunities in education, access to global education
Historical Foundations of Curriculum
Philippine education came about from various foreign influences.
The american educational system has the greatest influence in our educational system.
They are presented chronologically from the time of Bobbit in 1876-1956 to Ralph W. Tyler in 1902-1994
1. Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) - presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students need.
2.Werret Charters (1875-1952) - like Bobbit, to Charters curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on students needs.
3.William Kilpatrick ( 1871-1965) - the purpose of the curriculum is child development and growth.
4.Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - curriculum should develop the whole child.
5. Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - believes that curriculum is a set of experiences.
6. Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of schools philosophy.
-curriculum is always related to instruction.
Psychological Foundations on Curriculum
Psychology provides a basis for the teaching and learning process.
Three groups of learning theories:
Behaviorism or association theories
Cognitive-information processing theories
1. Behaviorist Psychology
dominated the 20th century
it includes among others connectionism of Edward Thorndike
influenced by Ralph Tyler and Hilda Taba - well known curricularist
Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning and B.F Skinners operant conditioning were all behaviorist character.
Albert Bandura - modeling and observation theory is related to behavior.
Robert Gagne hierarchical learning or sets of behavior
and five learning outcomes include:
1. intellectual skills or ''knowing how'' to categorize and use symbols, forming concepts and problem solving.
2.informationg or "knowing what" knowledge about facts, dates and names.
3. cognitive strategies or learning skills
4. motor skills
5. attitudes, feelings and emotions learned through experiences
To the behaviorist, learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter.
The method is introduced in a step by step manner with proper sequencing of task which is viewed by other educational psychologist as simplistic and mechanical.
2. Cognitive Psychology
These psychologist focus their attention on how individuals process information and how they monitor and manage thinking.
1. Jean Piaget for his Cognitive Development Stages.
2. Lev Vygostky for his Social Constructivism.
3. Howard Gardner for his Multiple Intellegences.
4. Felder and Silverman for his Learning Styles.
5. Daniel Goleman for Emotional Intellegences.
To the cognitive theorist, learning constitutes a logical method for organizing and interpreting learning .
These are exemplified by practices like reflective thinking, craetive thinking, intuitive thinking, discovery learning and many others.
Humanist psychologist are concerned with how learners can develop their human potential.
Traditional psychologist do not recognize humanistic psychology as a school psychology.
It is built on Gestalt psychology where learning can be explained in terms of the wholeness of the problem and where the environment is changing and the learner is continuosly reorganizing his or her perceptions.
Abraham Maslow theory of human needs for self actualizing persons.
Carl Rogers non directive lives also fall under humanistic psychology.
Psychology has a great influence in the curriculum.
Learners are not machines and the mind is not a computer.
The psychological foundations will help curriculum makers in nurturing a more advanced, more comprehensive and complete human learning.
Social Foundations of Education
School exist within the social context.
The home, the family, community likewise educate the people in the society.
Society as ever dynamic is source of evry fast changes which are difficult to cope with and to adjust to.
The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing.