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Eubacteria ISU

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julia m

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Eubacteria ISU

Cyanobacteria Phyla bacteria contains chlorophyll pigment
can make their own food
are found in the ocean and on land
have no flagella Spirochetes Phyla bacteria moves in a twisting motion
have flagella
some of these cause serious diseases Thermoacidophile
Phyla can survive in high temperatures and low pH levels
most are anaerobic
can survive at 100* Celsius Escherichia Coli gram-negative
facultative anaerobic
rod-shaped, about 2.0 microns in length and 0.5 microns in diameter
lives in lower intestine of warm blooded animals
some strains are harmless while some strains can cause food poisoning Lactobacillus Are a gram-positive facultative anaerobic or a microaerophillic rod-shaped bacteria.
Are part of lactic acid bacteria group.
Are found in the gastrointestinal tract.
It makes its environment acidic which prevents other bacterias from growing. Bradyrhizobium gram-negative
rod-shaped
have a single subpolar or polar flagellum
are soil dwelling organisms
They from a relationship with a plant, in it they fix nitrogen and the plant gives the bacteria carbohydrates. Clostidium Tetani rod-shaped
anaerobic
gram-positive
Found as spores in the soil.
Is also found in the gastrointestinal tract of animals.
Produces a toxin that is the causes tetanus. Yersinia pestis gram-negative
rod-shaped
facultative anaerobe
Affects animals with: pneumonic, septicemic and bubonic plague.
Discovered in 1894
Causes thing like fever, shivers, shock, seizures and other aweful symptoms. Moraxella cartarrhalis gram-negative
aerobic
oxidase-positive diplococcus
It causes infections in the eyes, respiratory system, joints and central nervous system of humans.
It moves around by sticking to cells inside the body.
There is currently no vaccine available. Methanobrevibactter smithii Found in the human gut. It is important for the digestion of complex sugars.
single-celled micro-organism
It recycles hydrogen in methan.e This lets the transformation of nutrients into calories increase. Chlamydia psittaci This causes Psittacosis. Some symptoms are fever, chills, dry cough, and joint pain.
Is found in bird droppings.
Doxycycline is used to treat Psittacosis.
Transmitted by inhalation or ingestion. Haemophilus influenzae gram-negative
rod-shaped
It is normally aerobic, but can also be facultative anaerobe.
Most stay in their host and don't cause disease, they just live, until something creates and opportunity for them.
They use TAA to infect the host. Neisseria meningitidis The bacteria that causes meningitis.
gram-negative diplococcus
Is spread threw saliava and air exchange.
It only affects humans, and no other animals.
It causes flu like symptoms. Treponema pallidum gram-negative
spirochaete
Have a cytoplasm and an outer membrane.
There are no vaccine for the diseases caused by Treponema. Vibrio cholerae gram-negative
comma-shaped
Some strains cause cholera.
facultatively anaerobic
On one cell pole it has a flagellum. Leptospira interrogans gram-negative
obligate aerobe spirochete
Normally infects animals, like dogs. Can also affect humans, but they don't try to.
In neutral or alkaline water it can live for 3 months. Rickettsia rickettsii unicellular
gram-negative coccobacillus
Uses endosymbiotic relationships to survive.
Have no distinct nucleus.
Live in ticks. Staphylococcus aureus Lives in the human respiratory tract and also on human skin.
Can cause skin infections, food poisoning and respiratory diseases.
Discovered in Scotland in 1880.
facultative anaerobic
gram-positive
coccal shaped
Means grape-clusters in Greek. Aeromonas hydrophila heterotrophic
gram-negative
rod-shaped
Lives in fresh or brackish water.
It can digest hemoglobin.
Normally has a width from 0.3-1 micrometer and is 1-3 micrometers lengthwise.
Can live in temperatures down to 4* Celsius Clostridium difficile gram-positive
anaeobic
rod-shaped
spore-forming
Can cause diarrhea and other problems in intestines. This happens the good bacteria gets removed. Methanosarcina acetivorans Found in oil wells, beneath kelp-beds, trash dumps and other diverse locations.
Can form multi-cellular colonies.
May show some cellular differentiation. Halobacterium salinarum extreme halophile
gram-negative
obligate aerobe
rod-shaped micro-organism
It lives in salted fish, hides, salterns and other places where there is a high concentration of salt. Eubacteria Archaebacteria Unicellular
Prokaryotic (no nuclei)
Have and S-layer.
Cell wall
cell membrane Have an enclosed cell wall made up of cross-linked peptidoglycan.
Two types of cell walls, Gram-positive and Gram-negative.
Some move using flagella. Glycoproteins and polysaccharides make up the cell wall.
Shares similar ribosomal proteins with Eukaryotes.
Most move around using flagella. Eubacterial Reproduction Most bacteria reproduce by binary fission, which is asexual.
Like mitosis.
This is a effective way of reproduction. But the cells are identical, so any antibiotics can get all of the cells. Conjugation. Some bacteria transfer DNA from themselves to another when they come in contact with them.
A protein tube called Pilus stretches from one bacteria to the other and genes are transferred through the tube. Transformation. Some bacteria takes the DNA from dead cells that is in their environment and transfers it over the bacteria membrane, into the cell.
It Incorporated into the bacteria's exsisting DNA. Transduction This involves bacteriophages.
The bacteriophage attaches to the bacterium, then inserts it genome.
Inside the bacterium the genome replicates.
The new bacteriophage then splits the bacterium open and escapes.
When inside, the bacteriophage collects some of the bacterium's DNA and then when it moves onto the next bacterium it transfers that DNA there. Archaebacterial Reproduction Reproduce by binary or multiple fission.
DNA replicates, then the cell grows bigger.
The wall pinches in and then the new cells break apart.
If there are more than two daughter cells it is called multiple fission. Budding Is another form of asexual reproduction.
The daughter cell forms on the mother cell.
When it matures it detaches from the mother cell.
It is an exact replica of the mother cell. Mother Cell Daughter Cell Digestion and Metabolism in Eubacteria Are classified by the type of energy, the source of carbon and the electron donors that they use for growth.
Phototrophs- use sunlight to photosynthesize or use chemotrophy. They use Sunlight as their source of energy and organic compounds or carbon fixation as their source of carbon.
Lithotrophs- use inorganic compounds as their source of energy and organic compounds or carbon fixation as their source of carbon.
Organotrophs- use organic compounds as their source of energy and organic compounds or carbon fixation as their source of carbon.
Digestion in Archaebacteria Have many different chemical reactions in their metabolism.
The different reactions are classified into nutritional groups based on their energy and carbon sources.
Phototrophs- use sunlight as their source of energy and organic compounds as their source of carbon.
Lithotrophs- use inorganic compounds as their source of energy and organic compounds or carbon fixation as their source of carbon.
Organotrophs- use organic compounds as their source of energy and organic compounds or carbon fixation as their source of carbon.
Gas exchange in Eubacteria and Archaebacteria cytoplasm
typically only one circular chromosome
nucleiod
ribosomes
Gases and everything else that is needed is moved in and out through the cell wall.
This is called diffusion. Circulation in Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Circulation of proteins and other things inside of the cells is done in the cytoplasm.
Since the cell is so simple and has very few organelles, the objects simple move where ever they need to go fairly freely. Eubacteria's impact People always see bacteria as the bad-guy, when in fact they aren't always. Bacteria has many uses that are beneficial.
Bacteria is used for cooking, for making things like yogurt, vinegar and cheese.
It is used in waste processing.
Some bacteria can digest the hydrocarbons in petroleum, so it can be used to clean up oil spills.
Are used for research in many different fields.
Many are used for antibodies and other health related things.
Although some bacteria causes harm, we have found so many uses for others. In my opinion bacteria seems to be one of the most important kingdoms and seems to be what every other life form depends so much on. Archaebacteria's Impact Archaebacteria is another important kingdom, because there is a lot that we can learn from studying it.
They are used in sewage treatment, mineral processing.
Also they are a big part of DNA cloning.
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria 3 http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/binfission.jpg
4 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Conjugation.svg/350px- Conjugation.svg.png
4 http://mol-biol4masters.masters.grkraj.org/html/Genetic_Engineering4A-Transformation-Bacterial_Cells_files/image002.jpg
5 http://www2.bc.cc.ca.us/bio16/images/transductiona.jpg
6 http://www.biologycorner.com/resources/fission.jpg
7 http://bricker.tcnj.edu/micro/le8/pirellula_budding.JPG
10 Own drawing made on Prezi.com
14 http://user.uni-frankfurt.de/~schauder/cyanos/image9.jpg
15 http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-488-488-90/61/6157/3UXG100Z/posters/leptospira-interrogans-spirochete-bacteria.jpg
16 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/32/EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg/250px-EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg
17 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Arkea.jpg/220px-Arkea.jpg
18 http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/96444c.jpg
19 http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/84150f.jpg
20 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EscherichiaColi_NIAID.jpg
21 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lactobacillus_sp_01.png
22 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Root-nodule01.jpg
23 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clostridium_tetani_01.png
24 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yersinia_pestis.jpg
25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_anthracis.png
26 http://www.downgardenservices.org.uk/scab.JPG
27 http://textbookofbacteriology.net/corynebacterium.jpg
28 http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_NgfUiPEwZDc/R1w8I28TCyI/AAAAAAAAAIU/aH0uhBzTutg/s400/Moraxella_spp.jpg
29 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/00/Chlamydophila_psittaci_FA_stain.jpg/220px-Chlamydophila_psittaci_FA_stain.jpg
30 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/Haemophilus_influenzae_01.jpg
31 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Neisseria_meningitidis_%28cropped%29.png
32 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Treponema_pallidum.jpg
33 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Vibrio_cholerae.jpg
34 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Leptospira_interrogans_strain_RGA_01.png
35 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rickettsia_rickettsii.jpg
36 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Staphylococcus_aureus_VISA_2.jpg
37 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Aeromonas_hydrophila.jpg
38 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Clostridium_difficile_01.jpg
39 http://wikioflife.wikispaces.com/file/view/Methanobrevibacter_smithii_2.jpg/179857963/Methanobrevibacter_smithii_2.jpg
40 http://wwwuser.gwdg.de/~wliebl/P_torridus_EM.jpg
41 http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/9/99/Sulfolobus6.jpg
42 http://garciajeanlouis9051.perso.neuf.fr/images/thermoproteus_tenax.jpg
43 http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/images/e/e7/M.j.gif
44 http://wishart.biology.ualberta.ca/BacMap/includes/species/Methanosarcina_acetivorans.png
45 http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-YqahssuEFi8/TWSJVEs0AnI/AAAAAAAAAEI/xPUfCdLVXFw/s1600/BR+Haloklone.jpeg
Pictures Archaea, (January 2013). In Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaea
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Archaebacteria Kingdom, (January 2013). In Buzzle. Retrieved January 2013, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/archaebacteria-kingdom.html
Bacillus anthracis, (December 28, 2012). In Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_anthracis
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Bailey, Regina. Bacterial Reproduction. (n.d.) In about.com. Retrieved January 2013 from http://biology.about.com/od/bacteriology/a/aa080907a.htm
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Treponema pallidum, (October 30,2012). In Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treponema_pallidum
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