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Nevado Del Ruiz

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Virginia Panza

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of Nevado Del Ruiz

A public education campaign was also under way in ear;y 1986
Schools educated students about volcanic hazards in general and, specifically, what to do if Nevado del Ruiz erupted
Red Cross circulated thousands of flyers to the public about the volcanic hazard, with information on evacuation warning systems such as sirens
Nevado Del Ruiz
Effects of the eruption

Even if eruption was small, the lahars killed approximately 22000 people that were 45km away
Most of the people who died were killed by suffocation as lahars up to 8m buried them
The lahars also killed 1800 people in Chinchina


All roads and communications were destroyed around area of eruption
The cost for the Colombian Economy was immense, $7.7 billion which was 20% of the GDP in 1985.

Effects of the eruption
Economic: (cont)

50 schools, 2 hospitals and 58 industrial plants were destroyed along with 343 commercial establishments


3400 hectares of agricultural land was destroyed
Sulfur dioxide could become sulfuric acid
Downpour of ash in Armero
Threat of mass destruction to people in the area and the land around it

Nevado del Ruiz
Before eruption
Responses - Short Term
The Colombian Red Cross and Civil Defense personnel were the principal first responders to Armero, participating in and organizing rescue and medical care.
The Colombian military also played an important role in the logistics of the rescue activities by providing helicopter airlift for victims in need of medical care, distributing supplies, and establishing field medical care and shelter.
Other Short Term Responses
Early on the emergency period, the Colombian president made a request for international assistance and much aid was received.
After the first 24 hours, resousources of all types began to arrive through the joint efforts of the international disaster relief community, and the indiividual efforts of ove 30 foreign countries
Effects on Armero
The Armero tragedy was one of the major consequences of the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz. After 69 years of dormancy, the volcano's eruption caught nearby towns unprepared, destroying towns like Armero and Mariquita. The lahars engulfed the town of Armero, killing more than 20,000 of its 29,000 inhabitants.

This was the second-deadliest volcanic disaster of the 20th century, causing many deaths in several towns and had a very negative effect
Long Term Response
In the wake of Armero disaster, Colombia established a plan for the warning and evacuation and threatened areas in the event of another eruption of Nevado Del Ruiz
It outlined topical planning areas such as:
Identification of hazard zones
population and property census
evacuation route identification
rescue and medical aid
security in evacuated areas
alert procedures
Physical Causes
Nevado del Ruiz had previously not erupted for 100 years so pressure had built up in the volcano.
Lahars (destructive mud flows) were caused by the sudden melting of the ice cap by hot pyroclastic material and carried volcanic material down the slopes of the volcano

Located on the border of the provinces of Tolima and Calada, 129 km away from the capital, Bogota.
Part of the Andes mountain range and the Andean volcanic belt.
Part of the Pacific 'Ring of Fire'.
Nevado del Ruiz is a Stratovulcano, composed by many layers of lava alternating with hardened volcanic ash and other pyroclastic rocks. Stratovulcanos have very steep slopes near the summit, which give it its cone like shape.

Nevado del Ruiz sits on a convergent plate boundary and was formed by the subduction of the oceanic Nazca plate beneath the continental South American Plate.
The volcano has been active for two million years, with three major eruptive periods. the present eruptive period began 150 thousand years ago.

The volcano has an altitude of 5400m and its summit is covered with glaciers and ice (nevado means snow covered in Spanish)
More long term responses
1985 eruption
Other Long Term Responses
Hazard maps in the form of posters were distributed for towns at risk to illustrated appropriate prospective action in response to hearing sirens such as to evacuate to high ground.
Evacuation route markers were painted on buildings in towns at risk to illustrate proper egress form danger areas if sirens were heard.
Beginning in 1984, there was an increase in seismic activity near Nevado del Ruiz.
Other signs of a forthcoming eruption included increased fumarole activity, deposition of sulfur on the summit of the volcano, and small phreatic eruptions and an ash ejection.
On November 15 1985, Nevado del Ruiz erupted, ejecting lava 30km into the atmosphere.
Hazard maps in the form of posters were distributed for towns at risk to illustrate appropriate protective action response to hearing sirens such as to evacuate to high ground.
Evacuation route markers were painted on buildings in towns at risk to illustrate proper egress from danger areas if sires were heard.
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