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Social Changes During World War I
Transcript of Social Changes During World War I
African Americans were actually allowed to serve in the military, however, they were treated a lot worse than the other soldiers.
Changes in Social Class
Family dynamic changed with American soldiers going to war and women taking many of their jobs.
Strong focus on nationalism and patriotism.
Government created programs to help support education which promoted nationalist movements and changes to education:
Committee of Public Information (CPI)
National Education Association (NEA)
Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
Patriotic and pro-war lessons were instituted in public schools.
Some children lost the opportunity to education
Minorities were a very large part of World War I, and an extremely important part also.
The 369th Infantry Regiment began in 1913 and was very well known because it was the only chance blacks had to prove themselves and fight against the discrimination, since it was the only all black regiment.
The regiment expected to earn whites' respect, but they did not successfully manage to do so (at least not during World War I).
Although they were not allowed to be in the war, a lot of Native Americans enlisted.
Approximately 10,000 Native Americans actually ended up serving in the war.
A couple parts of the Iroquois Confederacy actually declared war on Germany for the poor treatment of some of its people in Berlin at the time.
When the draft started, Native American men had to sign up for it, but most weren't actually considered citizens. Mainly, whether or not they were considered citizens relied upon whether or not they were "competent".
World War I altered education in the United States through curriculum changes with government pamphlets and required patriotism sessions
Children are dependent on the care, empathy, and attention of adults. Their attachments are disrupted in times of war:
loss of parents
Parent's preoccupation in protecting the family
Emotional unavailability of depressed or distracted parents.
According to animatingdemocracy.org, social change is "a broad umbrella to encompass a range of typical social and civic outcomes from increased awareness and understanding, to attitudinal change, to increased civic participation, the building of public will, to policy change that corrects injustice".
Different social classes were seen as equals
Middle class became officers on the front lines
Working class became foot soldiers
Progressive taxation was enforced: rich taxed more than the poor
In the 19th and early 20th century feminism movement to win women’s suffrage, education rights, better working conditions, and the removal of gender double standards was known as first wave feminism.
During World War 1 in America, first wave feminism involved women from all walks of life, most had husbands, sons or brothers fighting in the war and they wanted to be able to help them home in any way they could.
Not all women in America supported feminism
Even among the feminists there was a clear line between pro and anti war
During World War 1 most feminist were anti-war and most anti-feminist were pro-war
After WW1 to reward the feminist and women as a whole for their help towards the war effort President Woodrow Wilson ratified the 19th amendment to give women the right to vote in 1920.
Feminist leaders, Jane Addams and Carrie Chapman Catt founded the Women’s Peace Party to call for peace and settlements of continuing conflicts.
Examples of social change during World War 1 includes:
urban over rural
civil right protests
increase in marriages
Video: Here's why you don't ask a feminist to hawk your sexist product, Ellen
Two or more cultures exchanging ideas, art, weapons, science and politics.
Working class living standards improved: life expectancy increased and infant mortality decreased
Wages increased because of a higher work demand, since most workers were off in the war (includes more jobs for women)
Globalization was thriving from around 1870 until World War I
During WWI, globalization greatly fell: ships used for transporting goods were often sunk by German submarines
International trade, migration, and investment all collapsed
Cultural exchange was almost nonexistent with the lack of open trade between countries
After the war, cultural exchange was practically at a halt (Great Depression)