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Melbourne Urbanisation

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Dav Chen

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Melbourne Urbanisation

Melbourne's urban planning
Environmental - Stable Temperature
What are the impacts of urbanisation in Melbourne
The impacts of urbanisation is clear on Melbourne as a city. The impacts of urbanisation include positive and negative impacts. These impacts include traffic congestion and a growing economy.
Social - Second Most Populous State
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia, which Melbourne being where most of the population is. Many people live in Melbourne, and if their relatives or friends live in other places, they may migrate to Melbourne. Although this is not the most significant reason and factor which causes Melbourne to urbanise it is on a snow-balling process. Your relatives come to Melbourne, then your relatives friends and other family members come and so on. This reason is slow but is constant. This is a factor why Melbourne is urbanising.
Environmental Factors which have led to urbanisation in Melbourne
Melbourne has many environmental factors which have led to urbanisation including:
Stable Temperature
Only natural disaster that occurs in Melbourne are bushfires.
Natural Wonders
Resources
Agriculture
Melbourne - A Short Introduction
Melbourne - the garden state - was speculated in 1835 and broke away from New South Wales in 1851 as a the capital of the new state, Victoria. From there Melbourne had slowly developed in around two centuries to become Australia's second most populous state. Melbourne had started off as a small rural centre in Victoria but certain events in history had impacted Melbourne's growth and urbanisation. These impacts include environmental, social and economical impacts, have led to urbanisation in Melbourne. Urbanisation is the increasing number of people that migrate from rural to urban areas. Thus cities grow bigger because of urbanisation. Urbanisation comes with positive and negative impacts, so management plans are planned to guide urbanisation positively.
Environmental - Natural Disasters
Other than Black Saturday Bushfires in 2009 and other bushfires, which effected Melbourne with searing heat, there have not been many and not as many types of natural disasters compared to other states. In Sydney there are seasonal sandstorms, and in Gold Coast there are cyclones and tornados which occur mainly during Janurary to March. Most people would rather live somewhere safe and less prone to natural disasters and Melbourne is where they may migrate to.

Migration leads to urbanisation. In this case, it is the safety from natural disasters which causes migration to Melbourne.
Economy - Stable Economy
Australia has one of the world's most stable economies. During the 2008 financial crisis the Australian people were not as affected compared to those around the world. Citizen's still received health cover, yearly benefits and such. What is more is that Australia's inflation only rose the standard ~2.6%. This stable economy encourages large companies to have headquarters here and boost the economy standard. Because of these large companies and their influence on the ASX, people tend to migrate here following these companies or come here do invest themselves. Either way, a stable economy boosts urbanisation substantially. With other factors involved Melbourne boasts a better city than other - not only economically.
Melbourne is gifted to be close to many natural wonders. They include: The Great Ocean Road, The Grampians, Mount Bulla, Falls Creek, Mount Hotham, The Twelve Apostles, Wilson-Promontory, Port Phillip Bay and Red Rock (not to be confused with Ayers Rock/Uluru) and many more.

These natural wonders are an environmental impact which have lead to urbanisation in Melbourne. Although these natural wonders are not in Melbourne, Melbourne is the captiol of Victoria and many of the natural wonders are all under 4 hours drive.

One of the reasons why urbanisation is caused in Melbourne is because of the natural wonders and people who enjoy visiting the natural wonders many choose to live in Melbourne - the largest city in the State of Victoria.
Conclusion of What are the factors which led to urbanisation in Melbourne
Environmental:
Stable Temperature.
Only natural disaster that occurs in Melbourne are bushfires.
Natural Wonders
Resources
Melbourne
The Garden State
Environmental - Stable Temperature
The graph above shows the temperature and rainfall of Melbourne. The warmest month is January and the coldest being July. The average max temperature for January was 26 degrees and 14 was the lowest mean temperature in July, the coldest month. The difference in temperature is only a mere 12 degrees difference. Compared to other cities, Melbourne has a steady temperature which does not vary throughout the months. In terms of rainfall, October surprisingly has high average rainfall even though it is not the coldest month. The average rainfall for October was about 70~ mm.
Many people enjoy steady weather which does not vary too significantly through the seasons. Melbourne is the place for them. One environmental factor which has led to urbanisation in Melbourne is the temperature. Melbourne's temperature is more stable compared other areas, and is a reason why people have migrated to Melbourne. The migration then leads to urbanisation of the city.
Environmental -Natural Wonders
Social Factors which have led to urbanisation in Melbourne
Social Factors which have led to urbanisation in Melbourne include:
Melbourne being World's Most Friendly City
Second most populous state - people want to meet others (will clarify)
More tertiary educational institutes
More facilities/entertainment
Social - World's Friendliest City
Melbourne has been named The World's Friendliest City. This encourages not only global migration to Melbourne but also internal migrations from other cities such as Sydney which was named the fifth most friendliest city. For a city to be friendly it has to have welcoming people and its not just individuals who are constantly kind but rather the entire city releases a welcoming and friendly nature. The people and constant friendliness have been a reason for migration thus population increase which leads to urbanisation.
Economical Factors which have led to urbanisation in Melbourne
Economical Factors which have led to urbanisation in Melbourne include:
One of the world's most stable economies
Many small business opportunities and innovations supports
Gold Rush
Cheaper Living
Economical - Small Business and Innovations
In Melbourne, there are many benefits for starting a small business here, rather than other states or countries. The Victorian government has set up many grants and assistances not only for starting up small businesses but also for helping them continue. There are applications for grants such as Driving Business Innovation which is a $16 million grant for people who are starting innovations. This progam helps SMEs or Small to Medium Enterprises. There are also some grants open specifically for women. These grants may encourage people to come to Melbourne - the biggest city in Victoria in terms of size and population - to start their businesses here. The increase of population then leads to urbanising of Melbourne.
Economical - Gold Rush
Although this is also an environmental factor, the Gold Rush did play a major part in the urbanisation of not only Melbourne but also many rural centres of Victoria such as Ballarat and Bendigo. The Gold Rush had similar impacts on urbanisation as it did with the Californian Gold Rush. The Gold Rush encouraged many people of different ethnic backgrounds to Australia and stay here. And with the increase of population towns started and the economy in Melbourne and surrounding cities developed to what it is today. Because of the gold, people from other states also migrated to Melbourne. This was the basis of what Melbourne is like today, economically and socially.
Environmental - Resources
"Our land abounds in nature’s gifts, Of beauty rich and rare"
This is true not only for natural wonders but also for resources. Australia as a whole is known for resources, but in Melbourne and surrounding areas there have also been many precious naturalresources that have attracted global companies to increase production in Australia, thus increasing the population. The gold rush is an good example of resources and also Broken Hill which is farmed for uranium is another good example. This is an factor which led to urbanisation.

Side note: I included the gold rush in economical, although it could also be environmental.
Social:
Melbourne being World's Most Friendly City
Second most populous state - people want to meet others
Higher Education
More Facilities
Economical:
One of the world's most stable economies
Many small business opportunities and innovations supports
Gold Rush
Cheaper
Melbourne and the majority of Victoria is the yellow zone, and is most suitable for living
Environmental Impacts on Melbourne because of urbanisation
Environmental impacts that urbanisation has caused on Melbourne include:
Compactness in the City, leading to public transport\
Deforestation
Pollution
Stormwater maintenance
Litter
Environmental - Compactness in the City, Public transport
Contrary to many beliefs, urbanisation is not necessarily bad for the environment. With urbanisation, cities are more compact and closer together, people do not need to walk large distances or take private transport. With urbanisation, there are public transport to reduce carbon emissions. People do not need to take private transport to their destinations. For example from Flinder's Station to Chinatown or Little Bourke Street there are many trams and is a quick walk at a slow pace. This may also encourage more excercise and fitness from citizens.
Melbourne CBD Map
The Melbourne City is compact and easy to navigate
Environmental - Deforestation
Deforestation is thought to be the most detrimental impact urbanisation affects the city. Many trees and land have been cleared to make way for agriculture but much of the land has been cleared for infrastructure. In the past years, with the devasting bushfires included Melbourne has lost a significant number over trees, itis estimated to be around few hundred thousand. This effects our environment significantly. With trees being removed it also removes habitats for animals and food for others. Deforestation is definitely a major issue urbanisation brings.
"... few hundred thousand trees have been removed..."
Environmental - Pollution
Pollution, is an inevitable impact which comes along with urbanisation. Pollution has been caused in Melbourne because of urbanisation and this can be seen evidently when you drive across the west gate bridge overlooking Williamstown. The carbon emissions and the green house gases released from the pipes go straight into the atmosphere, hence destroying the ozone.

Bad air = Less Trees + Pollution = Shorter Life Span

Pollution has a direct impact on our health.
"Based on 2008 data, fine particle pollution has caused the deaths of 570 Australians in Melbourne, 520 people in Sydney, 247 in southeast Queensland and in Perth..." - IBT.au
Social Impacts on Melbourne because of urbanisation
Social Impacts on Melbourne which have been caused by urbanisation include:
Multiculturalism
Raised awareness for education

Increased artistic activities
Detrimental activity caused by certain groups
Social - Multicultralism
In Melbourne there are around 140 cultures, from Australia's Indigenous people to recent arrivals from Asian and African countries. The wide range of cultures is a positive social impact of urbanisation. These impacts bring us a wide range of festivals and traditional cuisine from all around the world. From dim sim to burritos, from pad thai to curry laksa. These social impacts from urbanisation is an positive impact to our society. Multicultralism also encourages acceptance of different races. This helps to stop rascism in Melbourne more than other states.
Social - Raised Awareness for Education
With the arrival of different races to Australia the stress to do well in school also increase. The competition increasing the demand for higher educational skills and levels also increase. This may seem to be detrimental to disadvantaged families or children who are not as skilled but in truth this is more of benefit. It allows students to know how the society really is and how you have to do your best in order to have a chance to be the best. This all comes with urbanisation. Without urbanisation such social impacts could not have happened.
With the arrival of differnet cultures - many form China - the hours of homework each night also increases. It is no surprise Shanghai is first, but what is surprising is Australia's hasty increase in rank just after a decade or so.
Social - Detrimental activity caused by certain groups
With the arrival of certain groups, certain detrimental activity maybe caused by haters and non-welcomers of these people. They do things such as vandalism and public rants and threats to these new arrivals. It makes them feel unwelcome and scared living under hostile people. This is an negative social impact caused by urbanisation. Of course there are federal forces to deal with these vandals but these are partially caused by vandalism.
Economy Impacts on Melbourne because of urbanisation
Economic impacts on Melbourne caused by urbanisation:
More Population = Most investors
More investors = More facilities = Jobs
Larger Economy = Hurts more if it collapses.
Economy --> More Population = More Investors
More population = More investors. With more investors the academy also grows steadier and more controlled. With more investors the economy also spreads out into an array of different areas. With more investors investing into different fields of study new inventions and technology may also arrive in Melbourne. Melbourne currently has been more of an focus for investors over Sydney. For example Uniqlo came to Melbourne before Sydney. This is not only because of the stable economy but also because of all the other factors caused by urbanisation.
Economy --> More Investors = More facilities = More Jobs
Currently the unemployment rate in Australia is 6.1%. It is 6.1% too much. However some people do not need to work, but there are others who are just living of assistance funds from the government. With more investors, they build more facilties such as shopping centres, businesses and hospitals. These facilites translate directly to more jobs. The reason why Australia has a small unemployment rate compared to other countries is because of the economy which has been impacted by urbanisation. In Melbourne, the unemployment rate is 15% but aroudn half of that are people who do not need to work. 15% has been a major improvement from previous unemployment rate in Melbourne. This is all because of the economic impacts, urbanisation hsa bought along with it.
Unemployment
Rate
In Melbourne and
Surrounding Cities
2014
Economy - Larger it is, harder it will fall
The larger an economy is in a certain country, the harder it fall if there is an possible economic crisis. For example, in 2008 financial crisis in America many suicided from the pure pressure and despair of the stock market collapsing and other reasons. If Australia's markets were to crash, this might be an outcome. Although this is only an hypothesis of what may happen it should still be considered as a negative effect of urbanisation. Larger the economy, the harder it will fall. And if it does, there will be major repercussions.
Management Strategies
With rapid urbanisation in Melbourne and surrounding rural areas, the Victorian government has set in many plans and strategies to limit and reduce the negative effects of urbanisation. Management strategies and plans have been set in place and are effective. The aim of these strategies are not only to stop or decrease the negative impacts of urbanisation but also to increase the benefits of urbanisation in Melbournian cities.
Melbourne 2030
Melbourne 2030 is an management strategy is an management strategy plan set in by the Victorian State Government to boost the benefits of urbanisation and limit the negative impacts of urbanisation by having activity centres such as Box Hill, Broadmeadows, Dandenong and Frankston. This management strategy was effective since 2001, and is effective until 2030.
Melbourne 2030 - cont.
The Melbourne 2030 plan was set in by the Bracks (ALP) government in 2001 (was speculated and designed in 1999 and open to public opinion n 2000) and is effective to 2030. This is implemented at a State level. The aim of this was to have a transit-oriented state (eg less private transport, more public transport) and have a the population spread out and not condensed in the Central Business District. It also aims to contain/slow down urban development only in the CBD but also CADs (Central Activity Districts).
Successes and long-term goals of Melbourne 2030
Melbourne 2030 has been a success in many ways. But in order to determine how successful it is to now, the long-term goals should be examined. The long-term goals of Melbourne 2030 is to maintain Melbourne's reputation as world's most friendly and liveable city in the World. To reach that, there are secondary goals to guide the management strategies along. These secondary goals include public transport. Although Melbourne 2030 is an slow management strategy it is slowly moving along. For example, Doncaster will be receiving trains, but in a later date (it was planned in 1995). As for Melbourne's reputution as world's most liveable city, it is currently succeeding. Melbourne has been voted most successful city many years in a row and having almost perfect score of 97~. This shows Melbourne 2030 is successful currently in maintaining and constructing a better city.
Social - Artistic Movements
With urbanisation brings people of many different interests including those who are into music and art. They will for example organise festivals and exhibitions for their interests. This can be considered a positive impact of urbanisation as it is brings more to the city culturally. The festivals include the Art and Writers Festivals. Film Festivals, Comedy Fest and Music Festivals.
Melbourne 2030
Urban
City Planning

Public Transport access plan
Conclusion
Melbourne is a city full of different cultures and has many music and other artistic interests. This is all brought along by urbanisation, however urbanisation also has many negative impacts. Urbanisation has many postivie and negative impacts. The negative impacts are limited and controlled by management strategies created by the Country, State and Council governments. Plans such as Melbourn 2030 is created to enhance the postive impacts and negate and minimise the impact of impacts which are detrimental to our society. Melbourne is influenced by urbanisation - for better or for worse.
Environmental - Agriculture
In the early development of Melbourne, people from Tasmania moved to Melbourne because of the flat land. This was a start of a urbanisation process which started the agricultural areas around Port Phillip Bay. One of the main reason environmentally is because of Melbourne position and status of the land. It was flat and not as mountainous as Tasmania. Farming was one of the reasons why urbanisation started around Melbourne.
Environmental - Stormwater
With urbanisation and more buildings come with more need of sanitation and better water supplies. This means the waste water will need to be removed via pipes which will require removal of trees for space. Stormwater pipes are also needed to removal waste water from housings. With urbanisation requires more dams for people to receive water from. Dams require large amounts of space, and space comes from removal of trees which is bad for our environment.
Environmental - Litter
With urbanisation comes with people and people will create litter. Litter if not disposed of properly will flow into rivers then into oceans which will effect out marine biodiversity and many unique species will be extinct. Litter can be dealt with however with education and fines for law-breakers.
Social - Further Education/Tertiary
Compared to rural towns, Melbourne has by far more tertiary educational institutes. Melbourne also has Australia's and one of the world's high-ranking universties. The University of Melbourne is a tertiary educational institue which is appealing for those seeking further education in rural towns. This is a reason of urbanisation.
Social - More facilities
Melbourne has more facilites than rural towns. Melbourne has more hospitals, more entertainment and more restaurants. Melbourne provides more for those chasing luxurious lifestyles and many people want to live in the city because of that. Melbourne having more entertainment venues and hospitals is a reason for population increase, thus urbanisation.
Economical - Cheaper
Melbourne's living standard is cheaper than other cities and the housing is also cheper than Sydney - Australia's most populous state. Sydeny's housing is on average a 28-30% higher than Melbourne's. Internal migration may be caused by cheaper housing and living standards. A banana maybe more expensive in the country because the cost for companies to get there is also higher. The accessibility and the appearance of high-demand food is also lower in the country compared to Melbourne.

Although Melbourne is Australia's second most populous, its CPI (Consumer Price Index) is only the fourth highest. Typically, more populous the state, the higher the CPI is. Surprisingly, Melbourne's CPI is only Australia's rank 4. This shows the living standards of Melbourne are lower than other cities.
Melbourne's public transport system is advance. Melbourne's ptv (public transport Victoria) has built 216 railway stations. This public transport can take you to over 450 ha (hectares) of public gardens and parks.
Melbourne's Geographic Characteristics
Melbourne, unlike many other Australian cities. It is not restricted by natural terrain to build and expand cities. For example, Sydney has the the Blue Mountains (part of the Great Dividing Range) which hinders its growth towards the west. Consequently, the lack of space for urbanisation and housing impacts on the housing price compared to Melbourne substantially.

Melbourne, was first built around the Port Phillip Bay and slowly moved towards the Yarra and more housing was established there. Now suburbs are located along the Yarra. For example, Kew and South Yarra. Melbourne is also flatter compared to other states
"As of 2014, Melbourne has 435 people living per square kilometer -"

Melbourne is densely populated.
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