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Realism, Naturalism, Romanticism, and "The Three Sisters"
Transcript of Realism, Naturalism, Romanticism, and "The Three Sisters"
Romanticism 19th and 20th Century
Western Theatre Naturalism See 10/25 Prezi also! Realism Late 19th &
Early 20th Century ROMANTICISM Romanticism vs. Realism "The Three Sisters" A play by Anton Checkhov Trailer for Film CHARACTERS Prozorova Sisters Olga Masha Irina Andrei,
their brother Natasha,
Andrei's wife Fyodor Ilyich Kulygin,
Masha's husband Aleksandr Vershinin,
Masha's lover Anfisa,
Old Nurse Baron Nikolai
Irina's fiance Staff Captain Vassily
in love with Irina &
kills the Baron in a duel Ivan Romanovich Chebutykin,
old family friend
of the Prozorovas Alexei Petrovich Fedotik,
sub-lieutenant, photographer &
in love with Irina Ferapont,
with hearing loss Vladimir Karlovich Rode,
Sub-lieutenant Conflicts between
Chekhov & Stanislavski
about themes & direction of play. FIRST PRODUCTION
HISTORY First performed,
Theatre First directed by
a realist. Written 1900 Themes Decay of Russia's
privileged class Search for meaning
in modern world Symbols Moscow/city =
Happiness Possibly based on
three Bronte sisters
(Charlotte, Emily, & Anne)
and their brother
Branwell Felt Realism did not
go far enough Truths via scientific
method & discovery Big in France Late 19th &
early 20th centuries "stark reality
with no compromise" "Naturalistic" Theatre
Working sets (real faucets, etc.)
No footlights/artificial lighting
No makeup on actors
Basic, realistic language/prose
Fourth Wall (Audience ignored.)
Deep psychological comprehension of character Emile Zola (1840 - 1902)
Theatre as "slice of life"
Wrote play "Therese Raquin," first naturalistic drama Andre Antoine (1858 - 1943)
Founder of Theatre Libre ("Free Theatre")
Model for experimental theatres
Minute details in plays August Strindberg (1849 - 1912)
Later rejected naturalism
Wrote "Miss Julie," an influential naturalistic play Influence of Charles Darwin
& his theory of evolution &
survival of the fittest Andre
Antoine August Strindberg Emile
Zola 19th Century
Theatre Overview Emotional Truth
Actual Reality Happiness pursued
through the realm
of the spiritual. Grand, sweeping,
"flamboyantly historical" Style Modern Example of Romanticism:
Moulin Rouge Film
(2001) Victor Hugo
(1802 - 1885)
"Hernani" Johan Wolfgang von Goethe
(1749 - 1832)
"Faust" (1808) Operatic, Expressive,
Acting Style "Your Song"
from Moulin Rouge film (2001) Henrik Ibsen (1828 - 1906)
Realistic Period: 1877 - 1890
Drama for Social Change; Social Realism
Hidden Middle-Class Suffering & Corruption
"A Doll's House" (1878)
Woman (Nora) leaves her husband
Still, Ibsen didn't feel he wrote "for the Women's Movement," just observed society
What happens when a woman stays with her abusive husband because social convention demanded it? Henrik Ibsen Anton Chekhov
into Fading Russian Upper-Class
"The Three Sisters"
"The Cherry Orchard"
"The Seagull" Anton Chekhov George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950)
"Savage" Satire & "Obscene" Realism
Anthology: "Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant" (1898)
"Arms and the Man"
"Mrs. Warren's Profession" George Bernard Shaw Twentieth Century
Ameican Masters See Chart on Page 185 of "Theatre in Your Life" for
a Comparison of Romanticism, Realism & Naturalism Eugene O'Neill (1888 - 1953)
Four Pulitzer Prizes & Nobel Prize for Literature in 1936
"Moon for the Misbegotten"
"Long Day's Journey Into Night Tennessee Williams
(1914 - 1983)
Wrote about Faded Beauty & Faded Hope
"The Glass Menagerie"
"A Streetcar Named Desire" Lillian Hellman
(1905 - 1984)
Tightly Woven Plots
Plays Explore PsychologicalWeakness &
Expose Sympathy for Flawed Characters
"The Children's Hour"
"The Little Foxes" Arthur Miller
(1915 - 2005)
Social & Political Works
Struggles of the Common Man
"All My Sons"
"A View From the Bridge"
"Death of a Salesman" Nineteenth-Century Changes August Comte (1798 - 1857)
Father of Modern Sociology
Believed scientific method could perfect
human society, not belief in divine beings/religion
Scientific method to benefit social, moral & intellectual concerns Karl Marx (1818 - 1883)
Believed in "Scientific Socialism"
Wrote "Communist Manifesto," 1848 Charles Darwin (1809 - 1882)
Possibly Most Influential Thinker of this period
Wrote "Origin of Species," 1859
Evolution through Variation & Natural Selection ("Survival of the Fittest")
Heredity & Environment Influence Evolution Sigmund Freud (2856 - 1939)
Father of Psychoanalysis
Theories of the Unconscious Mind, Sexuality, Repression, & Unconscious Motivations Influencing Behaviors, like "Oedipus Complex" Edmond Rostand
"Cyrano de Bergerac"
1897 The Actual Cyrano